Mark 14:30...That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Honestly, I'm telling you that you are--on this day, on this very night sooner than twice a cock sounds three times you are going to deny me for yourself.

KJV : 

Mark 14:30  Verily I say unto thee, That this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.

NIV : 

Mark 14:30  Truly I tell you, today—yes, tonight—before the rooster crows twice you yourself will disown me three times.”

3rd Translation: 

Mark 14:30 I tell you the truth, Peter—this very night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny three times that you even know me.”

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Its use here creates a great deal of suspense of in verse. It is a little more interesting and light-hearted than the English translation.  Jesus starts with his catchphrase "verily I say." After this catchphrase, he then inserts a hanging subject, "you are," but then he doesn't say what the action is doing. He just provides there subject, leaving the listener in suspense for the rest of the verse. This makes the accusation much more light-hearted.

In all translations, the exaggerated and humorous phrase, "sooner than" is translated dryly as "before." This version differs from the other Gospels because it has the cock crowing twice after the three denials.  In Greek, the words  rhyme like "twice" and "thrice" to in English. Its use here creates a great deal of suspense of in verse.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ἀμὴν (exclam) "Verily" is from amen, which is from the Hebrew, meaning "truly", "of a truth," and "so be it." It has no history in Greek of this meaning before the NT. However, this is also the infinitive form of the Greek verb amao, which means "to reap" or "to cut."

λέγω (1st sg pres pres ind act) "I tell" is from lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelt the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep." -

σοι (adj pl masc nom) "You" is from soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you".

ὅτι "That" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

σὺ (pron 2nd sg nom) "Thou" is su which means "you" and "your."

σήμερον (adv) "This day" is semeron, which is an adverb that means "for today" and "on this day."

ταύτῃ (adj sg fem dat) "This" is from tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these", "this", "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why."

τῇ (article sg fem dat) (article)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." --

νυκτὶ (noun sg fem dat) "Night" is from nyx, which means "night", "midnight", and is a metaphor for darkness.

 

πρὶν (prep) "Before" is from prin, which means "before", "sooner", "formerly," and "hitherto."

(conj/exclam/adv) Untranslated is e, which is a particle meaning "either", "or," or "than." OR  e which is an exclamation meaning "hi!" OR (adv) e, which is an adverb meaning "surly""doubtless."

δὶς  [2 verses](adv) "Twice" is dis, which means "twice" or "doubly"

ἀλέκτορα [4 verses](noun sg masc acc) "Cock" is from alektor which means "rooster", "cock", "husband," and "consort." It is also a metaphor for a trumpeter.

φωνῆσαι (verb 3rd sg aor opt act) "Crow" is from phoneo which means "to speak loudly or clearly" (of men), "uttering cries" (of animals), "affirm" (in court), "call by name", "command," and "speak of."

τρὶς [3 verses](adv) "Thrice" is from tris, which means "three times" and "thrice."

με. (pron 1st sg masc acc) "Me" is from eme, which means "I", "me", and "my".

ἀπαρνήσῃ [9 verses](verb 2nd sg fut ind mp) "Thou shalt deny" is aparneomai, which means "to deny utterly", "to refuse", "to reject," and "to deny."

KJV Analysis: 

Verily -- The word translated as "verily" is from the Hebrew word that means "truly" or "certainly," but it sounds like the Greek word with the same meaning. In Greek, the word also means "to reap." See this article discussing this "amen phrase."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

say -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

unto -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object.

thee,  -- The Greek pronoun "thee" here is singular and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc.

That -- In the Greek source, this is a word here that means "that" or "because." So what follows is a dependent clause, indicating either what they were "saying" or why they were saying it.

untranslated "you are"-- (MW) An untranslated word appears here that means "you yourself." Since pronouns are not usually used for subject in Greek, its use is to accentuate the word like we would say "you yourself". Since it is in the form of a subject and the verb for this noun doesn't appear until the end of the sentence, the sense is "you are."

this day, -- The Greek word translated as "this day" is an adverb that means "for today" and "on this day."

even --  (IW) There are no Greek word that can be translated as "even" in the Greek source.

in - This word "in" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

this -- The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article."  See this article for more. 

night, "Night" is the Greek noun that means "night", "midnight", and is a metaphor for darkness.

before -- Before" is  is an adverb means "before", "sooner", "formerly," and "hitherto." Here, "sooner" works better because of the following untranslated word.

untranslated "than"-- (MW) The untranslated word means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. Here, the sense is "sooner than."

the -- (WW) There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

cock -- The word for "cock" means a "rooster" and also a "husband."

crow -- The word translated as "crow" simply means "to utter cries." It doesn't mean "crow" specifically like the English word does.

twice, -- "Twice" is a Greek word that means "twice" or "doubly"

thou -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the following verb.

shalt  -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense or a form that indicates possibility at some time. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

deny -- The word translated as "deny" means "deny" and "reject." It is in a form that means the subject does this for himself.

me -- "Me" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

thrice -- "Thrice" is a adverb that means "three times" and "thrice."

KJV Translation Issues: 

5
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "you are" at the beginning of this verse is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "even" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "than" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

Truly -- The word translated as "truly " is from the Hebrew word that means "truly" or "certainly," but it sounds like the Greek word with the same meaning. In Greek, the word also means "to reap." See this article discussing this "amen phrase."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

say -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

you,  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is singular and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc.

untranslated "that"-- (MW) The untranslated word "that" or "because." So what follows is a dependent clause, indicating either what they were "saying" or why they were saying it.

today  -- The Greek word translated as "today" is an adverb that means "for today" and "on this day."

untranslated "you are"-- (MW) An untranslated word appears here that means "you yourself." Since pronouns are not usually used for subject in Greek, its use is to accentuate the word like we would say "you yourself". Since it is in the form of a subject and the verb for this noun doesn't appear until the end of the sentence, the sense is "you are."

yes, -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "yes" in the Greek source.

tonight -- This "tonight"  is from two Greek words meaning "this night." The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. "Night" is the Greek noun that means "night", "midnight", and is a metaphor for darkness.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article."  See this article for more.

before -- Before" is  is an adverb means "before", "sooner", "formerly," and "hitherto." Here, "sooner" works better because of the following untranslated word.

untranslated "than"-- (MW) The untranslated word means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. Here, the sense is "sooner than."

the -- (WW) There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

rooster -- The word for "rooster" means a "rooster" and also a "husband."

crows -- The word translated as "crows" simply means "to utter cries." It doesn't mean "crow" specifically like the English word does.

twice, -- "Twice" is a Greek word that means "twice" or "doubly"

you yourself -- This is from the pronoun that begins the sentence and the second-person, singular form of the following verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the following verb is the future tense or a form that indicates possibility at some time. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

disown -- The word translated as "disown" means "deny" and "reject." It is in a form that means the subject does this for himself.

me -- "Me" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

three times. -- "Thrice" is a adverb that means "three times" and "thrice."

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "that" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "you are" at the beginning of this verse is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "yes" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "than" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.

3rd Analysis: 

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

tell -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

you,  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is singular and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc.

the truth -- (WF) The word translated as "truly " is from the Hebrew word that means "truly" or "certainly," but it sounds like the Greek word with the same meaning. In Greek, the word also means "to reap." See this article discussing this "amen phrase."

Peter -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "Peter" in the Greek source.

untranslated "that"-- (MW) The untranslated word "that" or "because." So what follows is a dependent clause, indicating either what they were "saying" or why they were saying it.

untranslated "this day"-- (MW) The untranslated word"this day" is an adverb that means "for today" and "on this day."

untranslated "you are"-- (MW) An untranslated word appears here that means "you yourself." Since pronouns are not usually used for subject in Greek, its use is to accentuate the word like we would say "you yourself". Since it is in the form of a subject and the verb for this noun doesn't appear until the end of the sentence, the sense is "you are."

this -- The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage.

very  -- This word is the Greek definite article, which can also be translated as "this." See this article for more. 

night, "Night" is the Greek noun that means "night", "midnight", and is a metaphor for darkness.

before --  Before" is  is an adverb means "before", "sooner", "formerly," and "hitherto." Here, "sooner" works better because of the following untranslated word.

untranslated "than"-- (MW) The untranslated word means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. Here, the sense is "sooner than."

the -- (WW) There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

rooster -- The word for "rooster" means a "rooster" and also a "husband."

crows -- The word translated as "crows" simply means "to utter cries." It doesn't mean "crow" specifically like the English word does.

twice, -- "Twice" is a Greek word that means "twice" or "doubly"

you -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the following verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the following verb is the future tense or a form that indicates possibility at some time. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

deny -- The word translated as "deny" means "deny" and "reject." It is in a form that means the subject does this for himself.

three times. -- "Thrice" is a adverb that means "three times" and "thrice."

that you even know -- (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "that you even know" in the Greek source.

me. -- "Me" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

3rd Issue Count: 

8
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "the truth" is not a noun but an adverb, "truly."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "Peter" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "that" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "this day" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "that you even know" at the beginning of this verse is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "than" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted phrase-- The phrase "for them" doesn't exist in the source.

Front Page Date: 

Jan 26 2020