Mark 14:41...Sleep on now, and take your rest:

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Sleep the remaining and rest. It hold off. It is showing up this hour. Watch! The son of the man is given over into the hands of those erring.

KJV : 

Mark 14:41...Sleep on now, and take your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.

NIV : 

Mark 14:41 Are you still sleeping and resting? Enough! The hour has come. Look, the Son of Man is delivered into the hands of sinners.

3rd Translation: 

Mark 14:41 Go ahead and sleep. Have your rest. But no—the time has come. The Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Jesus uses a number of uncommon words here and some of his meaning is a little hard to figure. The Greek indicates that these lines were spoken at different times. At first, Jesus is saying there is time. There is a change of case indicating that the event is holding off, but coming tense is a point of time that could be the future. The last  verb, the one translated as "betrayed,"returns to the present tense.

The English translations all ignore the meaning of several key words . They also ignore the change in tenses. They are less of translations than trying to capture what they though Jesus was feeling.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Καθεύδετε (verb 2nd pl pres imperat act or verb 2nd pl pres ind act) "Sleep on" is from katheudo, which means "to lie down to sleep", "to sleep," and "to lie asleep."

[τὸ] ( article sg neut acc) Untranslated is the Greek definite article.

λοιπὸν [2 verses](adj sg neut acc) "Now" is from loipon, which means "remaining over", "descendants", "what remains", and of time "the future", "henceforth", and "hereafter."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀναπαύεσθε: (verb 2nd pl pres imperat mp or verb 2nd pl pres ind mp) "Take your rest" is from anapauo, which means "to make to cease", "stop." "hinder", "put an end to," "to relieve from,""bring to a close", "take rest", "sleep", "lie fallow", "regain strength," and "rest or settle [on an object]."

ἀπέχει: [8 verses]( verb 3rd sg pres ind act ) "It is enough"" is apecho, which means "to keep off or away from", "to hold one's hands off or away from", "to hold oneself off a thing", "to abstain or desist from it," "to project", "to extend", "to be far from," and "to receive payment in full." The word literally means "Keep from" or "have from." It root is echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to have due to one", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to carry", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." Its prefix is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause. -

ἦλθεν ( verb 3rd sg aor ind act ) "Is come" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. --

(article sg fem nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ὥρα,  (noun sg fem nom) "The hour" is hora, which means "any period", "season," (especially springtime), "year' (generally), "climate" (as determined by seasons), "duration", "the twelve equal parts into which the period of daylight was divided", "the fitting time" (for a task). --

ἰδοὺ (adv, verb 2nd sg aor imperat mid) "Behold is idou, which means "to behold", "to see," and "to perceive." It acts as an adverbial phrase in this form meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!' It is a form of the verb eido, which means "to see." --

παραδίδοται (verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Is betrayed" is from paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

(article sg masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

υἱὸς (noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

τοῦ (article sg masc gen) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

εἰς (prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὰς  (article pl fem acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

χεῖρας (noun pl fem acc) "Hands" is from cheir (cheir) which means "the hand and arm," and "with the help of agency of another." Like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful."

τῶν (article pl fem gen) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἁμαρτωλῶν. (noun pl fem gen) "Sinners" is from hamartolos, which means "erroneous" or "erring." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil.

KJV Analysis: 

Sleep -- The "sleep on" here is a verb that means "to lie down to sleep" and, generally, "to sleep." The prefix of the word means "down."

on -- (IW) There are no Greek word that can be translated as "on" in the Greek source. It is not justified by the prefix of the verb.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

now, (WW) The word translated as "now" means "the remains" normally and "the future" when referring to time. . However, it is also a very rare word for Christ. Jesus often uses rare words for humorous effect.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

take -- The verb translated as "take your rest" means "to make to cease", " bring to a close", and "take rest". The word also means "sleep" but that would be redundant here.

your -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

rest: Though not a part of the verb, this is clearly implied by the verb.

it - This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

is -- This helping verb indicates the present tense of the verb.

enough, (WW) "Enough"" is from a Greek verb that means "to keep off or away from", "to hold one's hands off or away from", "to hold oneself off a thing", "to abstain or desist from it," "to project", "to extend", "to be far from," and "to receive payment in full."  It literally means "keep from" or "have from." The form is third person, singular, present. It is not a command like the previous two words. The sense seems to be "it holds off."  The tense is present. This is important because the tense changes in the next verb. 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

hour -- The word translated as "hour" means a period of time, generally, as we might say "moment." It has an article so "the hour" or "this hour." It is in the form of a subject, so it is a subject of the  next verb, which is follows in the Greek, and possible the prior verb, "holds off."

is -- (WT) This "is" does not indicate the present tense. The following verb would sound more like the future tense. Since the previous verb was the present, the change in this verb to "a point in time" would indicate the future.

come; The word translated as "is come" primarily means "to start out" but Jesus often uses it to mean "come" but not always. Here the sense seems to be "start." The tense is a point of time.

behold, =- "Behold" is a verbal command meaning "See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "tah-dah" in a magic show, or "voila" in French. "Look!" or "See!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways. This verb is also in a form that indicates something happening at a point in time.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

is -- This helping verb "is" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This verb also represents a change back to the present tense.

betrayed -- (WW)  "Betrayed" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It has nothing to do with "betray." The form could be passive, but it could also be an active form where the subject act on himself. Literally, "he is giving himself over," but we would say "he is turning himself in."

into -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

hands Like "hands" in English, the Greek word has a lot of meanings including the physical hand, including the forearm, and someone's control.

of  -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more

sinners. -- (WW) "sinners" is a noun from an adjective that means "erroneous" or "erring", so "the erring" or "those who make mistakes." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil. Most of the shades of meaning in our word "sin" come from religious teaching after Jesus. More about the translation issues regarding the word "sin" here.

KJV Translation Issues: 

9
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "on" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "now" means "the remaining."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The "enough" means either "keep from" or "have from."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "is" seems to indicate an action in the present, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future. 
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "betrayed" means "give over."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "sinners" is an adjective, "erring."

NIV Analysis: 

Are -- (WF) This helping verb is added to make this a question, but the Greek is a command or a request.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

still (WW) The word translated as "still" means "the remains" normally and "the future" when referring to time.  However, it is also a very rare word for Christ. Jesus often uses rare words for humorous effect.

sleeping -- The "sleep on" here is a verb that means "to lie down to sleep" and, generally, "to sleep." The prefix of the word means "down."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

resting? -- The verb translated as "take your rest" means "to make to cease", " bring to a close", and "take rest". The word also means "sleep" but that would be redundant here.

Enough! (WW) "Enough"" is from a Greek verb that means "to keep off or away from", "to hold one's hands off or away from", "to hold oneself off a thing", "to abstain or desist from it," "to project", "to extend", "to be far from," and "to receive payment in full."  It literally means "keep from" or "have from." The form is third person, singular, present. It is not a command like the previous two words. The sense seems to be "it holds off."  The tense is present. This is important because the tense changes in the next verb. 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

hour -- The word translated as "hour" means a period of time, generally, as we might say "moment." It has an article so "the hour" or "this hour." It is in the form of a subject, so it is a subject of the  next verb, which is follows in the Greek, and possible the prior verb, "holds off."

has (WT) This "has" does not indicate the present tense or a past tense. The following verb would sound more like the future tense. Since the previous verb was the present, the change in this verb to "a point in time" would indicate the future.

come; The word translated as "is come" primarily means "to start out" but Jesus often uses it to mean "come" but not always. Here the sense seems to be "start." The tense is a point of time.

Look,  -- "Look" is a verbal command meaning "See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "tah-dah" in a magic show, or "voila" in French. "Look!" or "See!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways. This verb is also in a form that indicates something happening at a point in time.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

is -- This helping verb "is" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This verb also represents a change back to the present tense.

delivered --  "Delivered" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It has nothing to do with "betray." The form could be passive, but it could also be an active form where the subject act on himself. Literally, "he is giving himself over," but we would say "he is turning himself in."

into -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

hands Like "hands" in English, the Greek word has a lot of meanings including the physical hand, including the forearm, and someone's control.

of  -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more

sinners. -- (WW) "sinners" is a noun from an adjective that means "erroneous" or "erring", so "the erring" or "those who make mistakes." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil. Most of the shades of meaning in our word "sin" come from religious teaching after Jesus. More about the translation issues regarding the word "sin" here.

NIV Translation Issues: 

8
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "are" should not indicate a question.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "still" means "the remaining."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The "enough" means either "keep from" or "have from."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "has" seems to indicate an action in the present, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future. 
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "sinners" is an adjective, "erring."

3rd Analysis: 

Go ahead -- (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "go ahead" in the Greek source.

and -- (WP) The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). The conjunction does not appear here but before the "rest" verb.

sleep.  -- The "sleep" here is a verb that means "to lie down to sleep" and, generally, "to sleep." The prefix of the word means "down."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

untranslated "remaining"  -- (MW) The untranslated word means "remains" normally and "future" when referring to time.  However, it is also a very rare word for Christ. Jesus often uses rare words for humorous effect.

Have -- This helping verb indicates the present tense of the verb.

your -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

rest. -- The verb translated as " rest" means "to make to cease", " bring to a close", and "take rest". The word also means "sleep" but that would be redundant here.

But no— -- (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "but no" in the Greek source.

untranslated "holds off"  -- (MW) The untranslated word means "to keep off or away from", "to hold one's hands off or away from", "to hold oneself off a thing", "to abstain or desist from it," "to project", "to extend", "to be far from," and "to receive payment in full."  It literally means "keep from" or "have from." The form is third person, singular, present. It is not a command like the previous two words. The sense seems to be "it holds off."  The tense is present. This is important because the tense changes in the next verb. 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

time -- The word translated as "time" means a period of time, generally, as we might say "moment." It has an article so "the hour" or "this hour." It is in the form of a subject, so it is a subject of the  next verb, which is follows in the Greek, and possible the prior verb, "holds off."

has (WT) This "has" does not indicate the present tense or a past tense. The following verb would sound more like the future tense. Since the previous verb was the present, the change in this verb to "a point in time" would indicate the future.

come; The word translated as "is come" primarily means "to start out" but Jesus often uses it to mean "come" but not always. Here the sense seems to be "start." The tense is a point of time.

Look,  -- "Look" is a verbal command meaning "See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "tah-dah" in a magic show, or "voila" in French. "Look!" or "See!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways. This verb is also in a form that indicates something happening at a point in time.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

is -- This helping verb "is" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This verb also represents a change back to the present tense.

betrayed --  (WW) "Betrayed" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It has nothing to do with "betray." The form could be passive, but it could also be an active form where the subject act on himself. Literally, "he is giving himself over," but we would say "he is turning himself in."

into -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

hands Like "hands" in English, the Greek word has a lot of meanings including the physical hand, including the forearm, and someone's control.

of  -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more

sinners. -- (WW) "sinners" is a noun from an adjective that means "erroneous" or "erring", so "the erring" or "those who make mistakes." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil. Most of the shades of meaning in our word "sin" come from religious teaching after Jesus. More about the translation issues regarding the word "sin" here.

3rd Issue Count: 

11
  • IP - Inserted phrase-- The phrase "go ahead" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "and" doesn't appear here but before the verb for "rest".
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "remaining" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted phrase-- The phrase "But no" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "holds off" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "has" seems to indicate an action in the present, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future. 
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "betrayed" means "give over."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "sinners" is an adjective, "erring."

Front Page Date: 

Feb 2 2020