Matthew 11:19 The Son of man came eating and drinking,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

About John the Baptist, critics

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

He showed up, this son of the man, eating and drinking, and they say See for yourself! A man, a glutton, and a wine drinker. Of tax collectors? Beloved! And the erring! And it is proven, the wisdom from those actions of hers.

My Takeaway: 

You can never make some people happy.

KJV : 

Matthew 11:19 The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a wine bibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her children.

NIV : 

Matthew 11:19 The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, ‘Here is a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners.’ But wisdom is proved right by her deeds.”

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The first part of this verse sounds exactly like speech rather than something written, but the last phrase is more interesting. The Greek sources we used today have the Greek word for "deeds" not "children" used in KJV. However, in the parallel verse to this, Luke 7:35, one of the Greek words for "children" is used. The Greek words do not sound similar so perhaps both ideas were expressed at different times.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

ἦλθεν (3rd sg aor ind act) "Came" is from erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. -

(article sg masc nom - )  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

υἱὸς (noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child."

τοῦ (article sg masc gen)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. --

ἐσθίων (part sg pres act masc nom) "Eating" is from esthio, which means "to eat", "devour", "fret", "vex," and to "take in one's mouth." It is also a metaphor for decay and erosion.

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

πίνων, (part sg pres act masc nom) "Drinking" is from pinô (pino), which means "to drink", "to celebrate," and "soak up." -

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -

λέγουσιν (3rd pl pres ind act ) "They say" is from lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelt the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep."

Ἰδοὺ (verb 2nd sg aor imperat mid) "Behold is from idou, which means "to behold", "to see," and "to perceive." It acts as an adverbial phrase in this form meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!' It is a form of the verb eido, which means "to see." --

ἄνθρωπος (noun sg masc nom) "A man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. --

φάγος [2 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Gluttonous" is phagos, which simply means "a glutton."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -

οἰνοπότης,[2 verses] (noun sg masc nom) "Wine bibber" is oinopotês, which means "wine drinker."

τελωνῶν [9 verses](noun pl masc gen) "Of tax collectors" is telônês, which means a collector of taxes, tolls, or customs.

φίλος (adj sg masc nom) "A friend" is from philos, which as an adjective means "loved", "beloved", "dear", "kith and kin", "nearest and dearest", "friends," and (of things) "welcome" and "pleasant."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -

ἁμαρτωλῶν. (noun pl fem gen) "Sinners" is from hamartolos, which means "erroneous" or "erring." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil. --

καὶ (conj)  "But" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -

ἐδικαιώθη (3rd sg aor ind pass) "Is justified" is from dikaioo, which means to "set right", "hold or deem right", "proved", "tested," "claim or demand as a right", "that which is ordained", "pronounce judgment", "have right done one", "chastise," and "punish."

(article sg fem nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

σοφία [6 verses](noun sg fem nom) "Wisdom" is from sophia, which means "cleverness", "skill," and "learning." This was seen as an attribute of God and a gift from God to men. Sophia was the Greek goddess of learning and in Christianity is used as a symbol for Mary, the mother of Jesus.

ἀπὸ (prep) "By" is from apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

τῶν (article pl neut gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἔργων (noun pl neut gen) "Children" is ergon, which means "works", "tasks", "deeds", "actions", "thing," and "matter." --

αὐτῆς. (adj sg fem gen) "Her" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

KJV Analysis: 

The -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

came  - The word translated as "came" primarily means "to start out." It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." See this article on its meaning. Most recently, we translate as "show up". 

eating  - "Eating" is translated from a Greek word that means "to eat" and "to consume" but it has some of the same metaphorical sense that "eat" has in English. It means "decay," with the sense of "eating away" at something. It also means "vex" in the sense of "eating at" someone. John wasn't a consumer, but he clearly vexed the authorities.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

drinking,  - The word seems for "drinking" might be chosen for its double meaning. "To drink" also means "to celebrate."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

say, -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak."

Behold  - "Behold" is from verbal command to "See for yourselves". It is a singular command in the middle voice.

missing "by/for yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous verb is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "by yourself."

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

man. -- The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples".

gluttonous, - (WF) The Greek word translated as "gluttonous" is a noun that means "glutton." Jesus only uses this word only twice, here and in the parallel in Luke. It is from the common verb that means "eat." This is not the "eat" used above however.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

wine bibber,  -- The Greek word translated as "wine bibber" is a noun that means "wine drinker." Jesus only uses this word only twice, here and in the parallel in Luke. It is from the common verb that means "drink" and the word for "wine."

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

friend  - The term translated as "friend" is an adjective means "loved", "beloved," and "dear." More on the various related words for "love" in this article.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. 

publicans -- (CW) The Greek term translated as "publicans" means "farmer" and "tax collector." by Jesus's time, tax collectors were not tax-farmers, that is, private individuals who bought the right to collect taxes. Tax collectors worked directly for Rome, but the term "farmer" stuck from an earlier era when they were tax-farmers. Historically, these tax-collectors or rent collectors were notoriously corrupt, especially as tax farmers. They were made into government employees to reform them.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

sinners.  - (CW) "Sinners" is the Greek word that means "erroneous" or "erring." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil. Only in biblical translations is this term given the sense of wickedness. More about the translation issues regarding "sin" here in this article.

But  - (WW) "But" is the conjunction usually translated as "and" or "but" though it is usually translated as "and" in the Bible.  It is translated as "but" to create a separation for the earlier phrases in this verse. That division does not exist in the Greek.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

wisdom  - Wisdom" is a word meaning "cleverness", "skill", "learning," and "wisdom." The Greek word, Sophia, was the goddess of wisdom among the Greeks. Among the Jews, this attribute was first recognized as an attribute of God and was later identified with the Spirit of God. This word is only used six times by Jesus.

is -- -- This helping verb "is" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

justified  - "Is justified" is a verb that means "to set right", "hold or deem right", "proved", "tested," and "to do a man justice." It is a passive form.

of  - (WW) "Of" is a preposition of separation, separating from a place upon leaving, separating a part from a whole, separation of time or space. It is also a preposition of origin, of a place where something came from or the origin of a cause.

her -- The word translated as "her" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

children. -- (WW) The word translated as "children" is   means "deeds", "actions," and "things" in the sense of "every thing." The word for "children" is used in the Luke version of this verse and appeared in the less accurate Greek source used by the KJV translators. Most more modern Bibles translated this as "deeds". 

KJV Translation Issues: 

10
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WV  - Wrong Voice - The verb is in the middle voice requiring the concept of "yourself" as its object.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "gluttonous" is not an adjective but a noun, "glutton."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "publican" does not mean a tavern keeper but a "tax collector or "farmer."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "sinners" means "erring."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "but" should be "and."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "wisdom" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "of" should be "by."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "children" or "works" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "children" should be "deeds."

NIV Analysis: 

The -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

came  - The word translated as "came" primarily means "to start out." It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." See this article on its meaning. Most recently, we translate as "show up". 

eating  - "Eating" is translated from a Greek word that means "to eat" and "to consume" but it has some of the same metaphorical sense that "eat" has in English. It means "decay," with the sense of "eating away" at something. It also means "vex" in the sense of "eating at" someone. John wasn't a consumer, but he clearly vexed the authorities.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

drinking,  - The word seems for "drinking" might be chosen for its double meaning. "To drink" also means "to celebrate."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

say, -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak."

Here - (WW)  "Here " is from verbal command to "See for yourselves". It is a singular command in the middle voice.

missing "by/for yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous verb is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "by yourself."

is -- There is no verb "is" in the Greek source. It is implied by the equating of "workman" with "gluttoneous" and "wind drinker" both in form of a subject. 

untranslated "man"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples".

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

glutton , -) The Greek word translated as "glutto" is a noun that means "glutton." Jesus only uses this word only twice, here and in the parallel in Luke. It is from the common verb that means "eat." This is not the "eat" used above however.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

drunkard,  -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "drunkard," is a noun that means "wine drinker." Jesus only uses this word only twice, here and in the parallel in Luke. It is from the common verb that means "drink" and the word for "wine." It is not the Greek word for "drunkard."

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

friend  - The term translated as "friend" is an adjective means "loved", "beloved," and "dear." More on the various related words for "love" in this article.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. 

tax collectors --  The Greek term translated as "publicans" means "farmer" and "tax collector." by Jesus's time, tax collectors were not tax-farmers, that is, private individuals who bought the right to collect taxes. Tax collectors worked directly for Rome, but the term "farmer" stuck from an earlier era when they were tax-farmers. Historically, these tax-collectors or rent collectors were notoriously corrupt, especially as tax farmers. They were made into government employees to reform them.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

sinners.  - (CW) "Sinners" is the Greek word that means "erroneous" or "erring." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil. Only in biblical translations is this term given the sense of wickedness. More about the translation issues regarding "sin" here in this article.

But  - (WW) "But" is the conjunction usually translated as "and" or "but" though it is usually translated as "and" in the Bible.  It is translated as "but" to create a separation for the earlier phrases in this verse. That division does not exist in the Greek.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

wisdom  - Wisdom" is a word meaning "cleverness", "skill", "learning," and "wisdom." The Greek word, Sophia, was the goddess of wisdom among the Greeks. Among the Jews, this attribute was first recognized as an attribute of God and was later identified with the Spirit of God. This word is only used six times by Jesus.

is -- -- This helping verb "is" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

proved right - "Proved r" is a verb that means "to set right", "hold or deem right", "proved", "tested," and "to do a man justice." It is a passive form.

by -  "By" is a preposition of separation, separating from a place upon leaving, separating a part from a whole, separation of time or space. It is also a preposition of origin, of a place where something came from or the origin of a cause.

her -- The word translated as "her" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

deeds. -- The word translated as "deeds" is means "deeds", "actions," and "things" in the sense of "every thing." The word for "children" is used in the Luke version of this verse and appeared in the less accurate Greek source used by the KJV translators. Most more modern Bibles translated this as "deeds". 

NIV Translation Issues: 

9
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "here" should be "look."
  • WV  - Wrong Voice - The verb is in the middle voice requiring the concept of "yourself" as its object.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "drunkard" means "wine drinker" not drunkard."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "sinners" means "erring."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "but" should be "and."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "wisdom" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "de" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Oct 11 2020