Matthew 13:28 He said to them, An enemy

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Parables, Parables of the Weeds

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

That one, however, asserted to them, "A hating person caused this." They, however, repeated to him, "Do you want us then going out? Should should collect them?"

KJV : 

Matthew 13:28 He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up?

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The word translated as "enemy" is an adjective meaning "hating" so the sense is a "hater." Jesus only uses this word in twelve verses. In the next verse, the same word is used modifying the word "man" but here it has no noun so the sense is that it is "hatred" itself. This is Jesus's answer to where the problems of the world come from.

A rare word translated as "said" is used in this verse, but Jesus only uses this word in four verses, always to describe a master talking to a servant. The sense is a stronger statement than one of the common words for "said."

NIV : 

Matthew 13:28 “ ‘An enemy did this,’ he replied. “The servants asked him, ‘Do you want us to go and pull them up?’

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "an enemy" means either "a hateful man" or "hating humanity." The is an answer to the question of evil. 

My Takeaway: 

People's natural reaction is to attack opponents and their works.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

(article sg masc nom) "He" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one."

δὲ (conj) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). --

ἔφη [3 verses](verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "Said" is from phemi, which means to "say", "affirm", "assert", "write (of an author), "deem", "allege", "command," and "order."

αὐτοῖς (adj pl masc dat) "Unto them" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

Ἐχθρὸς [12 verses](adj sg masc nom) "An enemy" is from echthros, which means "the hated", "the hateful", "the hostile", "the enemy", "the alienated," and "the hating."

ἄνθρωπος (noun sg masc nom) Untranslated is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

τοῦτο (adj sg neut acc ) "This" is from touto, which means "from here", "from there", "this [thing]," or "that [thing]."

ἐποίησεν. (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Hath done" is from poieo, which means "to make", "to produce", "to create", "to bring into existence", "to bring about", "to cause", "to render", "to consider", "to prepare", "to make ready," and "to do."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "The servants" is from the Greek article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

δὲ (conj) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). --

αὐτῷ (adj sg masc dat) "Unto him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

λέγουσιν (verb 3rd pl pres ind act) "Said" is from laleo, which means "to talk," "to speak ""to prattle", "to chat," and [for oracles] "to proclaim." It also means "chatter" as the opposite of articulate speech.

Θέλεις (verb 2nd sg pres ind act) "Wilt thou" is from thelo, which as a verb means "to be willing (of consent rather than desire)", "to wish", "to ordain", "to decree", "to be resolved to a purpose ""to maintain", "to hold", "to delight in, and "will (to express a future event when used with inanimate things).)." As an adverb, "willingly," and "gladly." and "to desire." As an adjective, it means "wished for" and "desired."

οὖν (adv) "Then" is from oun, which means "certainly", "in fact", "really", "in fact," "so" and "then" (continuing a narrative), and "then" and "therefore."

ἀπελθόντες (part pl aor act masc nom) "Go" is from The  which means "to go away," "to depart from", "to spread abroad," and "to depart from life."

συλλέξωμεν [8 verses](verb 1st pl aor subj act) "Gather" is from sylego, a term meaning "gather", "collect", "come together", "collect", "get together [people]", "compose", "compile", "scrape together", "compile a list of," (in middle passive) "collect for oneself", "for one's own use," and (in passive) "come together", "become customary", "come together", "assemble."

αὐτά; (adj pl neut acc) "Them" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

KJV Analysis: 

untranslated "however"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  is the Greek conjugation usually translated as"but" but which is used here to continue the story by providing an explanation, "so."

He -- (CW) The word translated as "he" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

said - (WW)  "Said" is not from one of the common words translated as "say" or "tell." It has the sense of making a strong statement so "asserted," "affirmed,""denied," etc. Jesus uses this word exclusively when a master is addressing a servant.

unto -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

them,  - -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

An  -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

enemy  - The source of "an enemy" is from an adjective that means "hated", "hating," and "hateful."

untranslated "man"  -- (MW) The untranslated word means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

done  - The Greek word translated as "hath done" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "rendering" as service.

this.  - -- The word translated as "this" means "from here" or "this/that thing."

The -- The word translated as "those" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

untranslated "however"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  is the Greek conjugation usually translated as"but" but which is used here to continue the story by providing an explanation, "so."

servants  - -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "servants" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

said  - (CW) The Greek word translated as "said" is not the ordinary "to say" or "to speak" in Greek nor is it the even more unusual word translated as "said" above. This word means both "idle chatter", "gossip," and "the proclamations of an oracle." Jesus uses it to capture the idea of "pass on," because that captures both someone gossiping and an oracle does.

unto -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object.

him,  - -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

Wilt  -- The Greek word translated as "wilt" is not the same as the helper verb "will" in English, which primarily expresses consent and even a delight in doing something. It means "to consent" and "to be resolved to a purpose".

thou  - -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

then  - The Greek word translated as "then" either emphasizes the truth of something ("certainly", "really") or it simply continues an existing narrative, "then" or "therefore." Jesus uses it to respond positively to questions, but here in continues the story.

that  - -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

we -- This is from the first-person, plural form of the verb

go  - (WW, WF) The word translated as "go" is a compound verb that means "to go or come from." It is usually used to means "depart" but here, the sense is more "go out." However, it is in the form of an adjective or noun, "going out."

and  - -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "and" in the Greek source. It was added because the previous verb was translated as active rather than a participle.

gather  - (WF) The word translated as "gather," also means to "collect", "come together." It is in a form indicate something that might or should happen.

them  -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

up? --  There is nothing that can be translated as "up" in the Greek source. But it is often used in English with the verb "gather."

KJV Translation Issues: 

13
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "however" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "he" is not the common word usually translated as "he."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "said" should be "asserted" or "declared."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future). This is the usual tense of stories.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "however" is not shown in the English translation.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "servants" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • CW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "said" should be "repeated" or "prattled."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "that" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Confusing Word -- The word translated as "go" should be "go out" or "depart."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "go" is not an active verb but a participle, "departing."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "gather" is not indicative but subjunctive, "might or should gather."

NIV Analysis: 

An  -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

enemy  - The source of "an enemy" is from an adjective that means "hated", "hating," and "hateful."

untranslated "man"  -- (MW) The untranslated word means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples".

did - The Greek word translated as "hath done" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "rendering" as service.

untranslated "however"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  is the Greek conjugation usually translated as"but" but which is used here to continue the story by providing an explanation, "so."

this.  - -- The word translated as "this" means "from here" or "this/that thing."

he -- (CW) The word translated as "he" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

replied - (WW)  "Replied" is not from one of the common words translated as "say" or "tell." It has the sense of making a strong statement so "asserted," "affirmed,""denied," etc. Jesus uses this word exclusively when a master is addressing a servant.

untranslated "to them"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

The -- The word translated as "those" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

untranslated "however"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  is the Greek conjugation usually translated as"but" but which is used here to continue the story by providing an explanation, "so."

servants  - -- (IW) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "servants" in the source we use today.

asked - (WW) The Greek word translated as "asked" is not the ordinary translated as "asked." This word means both "idle chatter", "gossip," and "the proclamations of an oracle." Jesus uses it to capture the idea of "pass on," because that captures both someone gossiping and an oracle does.

him,  - -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

‘Do   - - This helping verb is used to create questions, commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

you - -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

want -- The Greek word translated as "want" primarily expresses consent and even a delight in doing something. It means "to consent" and "to be resolved to a purpose".

us  - -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

untranslated "then"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "then" either emphasizes the truth of something ("certainly", "really") or it simply continues an existing narrative, "then" or "therefore." Jesus uses it to respond positively to questions, but here in continues the story.

to   --  This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English. The verb is not an infinitive, but English takes and infinitive after a "want" statement.

go  - (WW, WF) The word translated as "go" is a compound verb that means "to go or come from." It is usually used to means "depart" but here, the sense is more "go out." However, it is in the form of an adjective or noun, "going out."

and  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "and" in the Greek source. It was added because the previous verb was translated as active rather than a participle.

pull - (WW, WF) The word translated as "pull," also means to "gather," "collect", "come together." It is in a form indicate something that might or should happen.

them  -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

up? --  There is nothing that can be translated as "up" in the Greek source. But it is often used in English with the verb "gather."

NIV Translation Issues: 

13
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "however" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "he" is not the common word usually translated as "he."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "replied" should be "asserted" or "declared."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "to them" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "however" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW -- Inserted Word -- The Greek word translated as "servants" existed in the KJV is not in the Greek source  we use today.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "said" should be "repeated" or "prattled."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "go" should be "go out" or "depart."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "go" is not an active verb but a participle, "departing."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "pull" should be "gather" or "collect."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "gather" is not indicative but subjunctive, "might or should gather."

The Spoken Version: 

The Master then straightened up into a more regal bearing.
“That one, however, exclaimed to them,” he said. “‘A hating person caused this.’”
Then the Master returned to his more servile posture.
“They, however, responded to him,” he said, returning to the hesitant, whining tone. “Do you want us then going out? Should should collect them?”
The crowd again laughed.

Front Page Date: 

Dec 17 2020