Matthew 22:13 Then the king said to the servants,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

After his opponents leave, Jesus addresses the crowd telling a parable comparing the realm of the skies to a man, a king.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

The king instructed his servers: Tying his feet and hands, toss him out into the darkness, the outside. In that place, it will be the crying and the biting of the teeth.

KJV : 

Matthew 22:13 Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

As the story takes a philosophical turn in the previous verse, Matthew 22:11, that tone continues here, ending on one of Jesus's statements that are exaggerated for humor.

Jesus uses the phrase "weeping and gnashing of teeth" in the same humorous way that we say in English "whining and complaining" or "bitching and moaning." The "gnashing of teeth" could indicate the chattering of teeth, conveying the sense that this person is tossed out "in the cold," except that Jesus uses this same phrase earlier to describe weeds cast in a fire.

NIV : 

Matthew 22:13 Then the king told the attendants, ‘Tie him hand and foot, and throw him outside, into the darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’

Wordplay: 

Tying of hands and feet is symbolic of taking away one's ability to do and move. The "darkness outside"  is a metaphor for an area of ignorance outside of the inner circle of knowledge.  The "gnashing of teeth" phrase captures both the sense of what we call "backbiting" among people and the pain of loss.

My Takeaway: 

Failing to show respect can leave you crying in the dark.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

τότε [53 verses](adv) "Then" is from tote, which means "at that time" and "then."

(article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

βασιλεὺς [27 verses](noun sg masc nom) "King" is from basileus, which means a "king", "chief", "prince", "lord", "master", "a great man," and "the first and most distinguished of any class." It is a form of the word used for "kingdom."

εἶπεν [162 verses](verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Said" is from eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer."

τοῖς (article pl masc dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

διακόνοις [6 verses](noun pl masc dat) "Servants" is from the noun diakonos, which means "servant", "messenger," and "attendant." This is the source for our word "deacon." As a verb, it is from diakoneô, which "to act as a servant", "to minister," and "to perform services."

Δήσαντες [10 verses](part pl aor act masc nom) "Bind" is deo which means "to bind", "to keep in bonds", "to tie", "to hinder from," and "to fetter. " It is in the form on an adjective, "tying."

αὐτοῦ [720 verses](adj sg masc gen) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

πόδας [19 verses](noun pl masc acc) "Foot" is pous, which means a "foot", "a talon [of a bird]," and the concept of "to trample" or "to tred upon."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv)"And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

χεῖρας[25 verses](noun pl fem acc) "Hand" is cheir which means "the hand and arm," and "with the help of agency of another." Like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful."

ἐκβάλετε [33 verses](verb 2nd pl aor ind act) "Cast" is ekballo and means "throw out", "cast out of a place,"and "expose." Ek means "out of", "from," and "away from." Ballo is "to throw" or "to scatter." --

αὐτὸν [720 verses](adj sg masc acc) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸ (article sg neut acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

σκότος [7 verses](noun sg neut acc) "Darkness" is skotos, which means "darkness", "gloom", "blindness," and "dizziness." It is a metaphor in Greek for ignorance.

τὸ (article sg masc acc) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἐξώτερον: [3 verses](adj sg masc acc) "Outer" is exoteros, which means "outer" and "utter," and literally means "more outside."

ἐκεῖ [33 verses](adv) "Yonder place" is from ekei, which means "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world." -- "Yonder place" is a word meaning "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world."

ἔσται [614 verses](3rd sg fut ind mid) "Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

(article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

κλαυθμὸς [6 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Weeping" is klauthmos, which means "a weeping."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

(article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

βρυγμὸς[6 verses] (noun sg masc nom) "Gnashing" is brugmos , which means "biting", "gobbling," and "chattering."

τῶν(article pl masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ὀδόντων. (noun pl masc gen) "Of teeth" is from odous, which means "tooth", "anything pointed", "prong", "spike", "peak," and "tooth [of a saw]." It is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

KJV Analysis: 

Then -- The Greek word for "then" means "at this time" or "then". With the subjective negative, the sense is "not when."

said - "Said" is from means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

king  - "King" is translated from a Greek word that means a "king" or "chief."

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

the - The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

servants,  - The word translated here as "servants," actually means "servant." It is not the Greek word usually translated as "servant," which is used throughout this parable until this point. That word really means "slave." This word is the source for our word "deacon." Its use identifies two groups: a group of slaves that took out the world and a group that takes of servants inside the feast who took care of the problem guest.

Bind  - (WF) "Bind" is from a word that means "to tie", "to bind", "to fetter," and "to keep in bonds." It is a metaphor for chaining. This is the term used earlier for "binding on earth is bound in heaven." The form is participle, "tying."

him -- (WF) The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  This pronoun is not in the form of an object, "him," but the genitive, "of his."

hand  - (WN, WP) "Hand" is from a word that means "the hand and arm," and, like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed," "giving aid", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful." The word is plural, not singular.

and  - -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

foot,  - (WN) The word translated as "foot" refers to human feet, bird's talons, and trampling things. It is plural not singular. The word is plural, not singular.

and take him away, -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "take him away" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

and - -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

cast  - (CW) "Cast" is from a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. The feeling of this word is slightly humorous, as we use the word "toss." This is not the simple "cast" but a compound word meaning "cast out."

him  -  The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  This pronoun is in the form of an object, "him."

into  - The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure. Here, Christ states directly he is taking about a place in the sense of a state of being.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

outer  - The word translated as "outer" is the adjective that means "more outside," but it is preceded with an article, so it acts as a noun. Here, the sense is outside of the circle of knowledge and light.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

darkness;  - The word translated as "darkness" means "darkness" and "gloom" and it is a metaphor in Greek for ignorance and the nether world. It is introduced with an article "the."

there  - The word translated as "there" means "there" or "in that place" but it also means "the intelligible world," that is, the world we understand. It refers to a place much more strongly than our word "there" which can be a simple helper to introduce a verb of being.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.

weeping  - The "weeping" comes from a noun form of the verb "weep" which means "to weep", "to cry", "to lament," and "to wail."

and  - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

gnashing  - The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

teeth.  - The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

KJV Translation Issues: 

9
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "bind" is not an active verb but a participle, "binding."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "him" is an object but a possessive, "his."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "hand" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "hands."
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "hands" appears after "feet."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "foot" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "feet."
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "and take him away" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "caste" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "outer" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "darkness" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

Then -- The Greek word for "then" means "at this time" or "then". With the subjective negative, the sense is "not when."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

king  - "King" is translated from a Greek word that means a "king" or "chief."

told - "Told " is from means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming.

the - The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

attendants,  - (WW) The word translated here as "attendants," actually means "servant." It is not the Greek word usually translated as "servant," which is used throughout this parable until this point. That word really means "slave." This word is the source for our word "deacon." Its use identifies two groups: a group of slaves that took out the world and a group that takes of servants inside the feast who took care of the problem guest.

Tie   - (WF) "Bind" is from a word that means "to tie", "to bind", "to fetter," and "to keep in bonds." It is a metaphor for chaining. This is the term used earlier for "binding on earth is bound in heaven." The form is a participle, "tying."

him -- (WF) The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  This pronoun is not in the form of an object, "him," but the genitive, "of his."

hand  - (WN, WP) "Hand" is from a word that means "the hand and arm," and, like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed," "giving aid", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful." The word is plural, not singular.

and  - -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

foot,  - (WN) The word translated as "foot" refers to human feet, bird's talons, and trampling things. It is plural not singular. The word is plural, not singular.

and - -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

throw - (CW) "Throw " is from a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. The feeling of this word is slightly humorous, as we use the word "toss." This is not the simple "cast" but a compound word meaning "cast out."

him  -  The word translated as "him" is a Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  This pronoun is in the form of an object, "him."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

outside  - - The word translated as "outside" is the adjective that means "more outside," but it is preceded with an article, so it acts as a noun. Here, the sense is outside of the circle of knowledge and light.

into  - The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure. Here, Christ states directly he is taking about a place in the sense of a state of being.

the - The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

darkness;  - The word translated as "darkness" means "darkness" and "gloom" and it is a metaphor in Greek for ignorance and the nether world. It is introduced with an article "the."

where - The word translated as "where" means "there" or "in that place" but it also means "the intelligible world," that is, the world we understand. It refers to a place much more strongly than our word "there" which can be a simple helper to introduce a verb of being.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.

weeping  - The "weeping" comes from a noun form of the verb "weep" which means "to weep", "to cry", "to lament," and "to wail."

and  - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

gnashing  - The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

teeth.  - The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

NIV Translation Issues: 

8
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "attendants" should be "servants."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "tie" is not an active verb but a participle, "tying."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "him" is an object but a possessive, "his."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "hand" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "hands."
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "hands" appears after "feet."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "foot" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "feet."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "throw" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "outside" is not shown in the English translation.

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Tying of hands and feet is symbolic of taking away one's ability to do and move. The "darkness outside"  is a metaphor for an area of ignorance outside of the inner circle of knowledge.  The "gnashing of teeth" phrase captures both the sense of what we call "backbiting" among people and the pain of loss.

Front Page Date: 

Jul 6 2021