Matthew 5:22 ...That whoever is angry with his brother

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Sermon on Mount, law and fulfillment, visible and invisible, killing and anger

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

I myself, however, tell you that every one being irritated by that brother of his will be bound by that judgment. That one, however, when he might say to that brother of his, "rags!" will be bound to the town council. That one, however, when he might say "moron!" will be bound by to the trash dump of that fire.

KJV : 

Matthew 5:22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

NIV : 

Matthew 5:22 But I tell you that anyone who is angry with a brother or sister will be subject to judgment. Again, anyone who says to a brother or sister, ‘Raca,’ is answerable to the court. And anyone who says, ‘You fool!’ will be in danger of the fire of hell.

3rd Translation: 

Matthew 5:22 But I say, if you are even angry with someone, you are subject to judgment! If you call someone an idiot, you are in danger of being brought before the court. And if you curse someone, you are in danger of the fires of hell.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The most interesting word in this verse is the word "raca," which is either untranslated (KJV, NIV) or translated as "idiot." However, it is a perfectly legitimate word in Greek. It means "rags." While the Aramaic interpretations seem vague, the Greek word is clearly an insult if viewed from the perspective of Jesus's time.

Also interesting is the word mistranslated as "hell." The word describes and area outside Jerusalem that is a trash-burning area, not the Greek word meaning the place of the afterlife.. See this article for more.

The verse offers three similar statements so the message is in the changes among them.  With the previous verse, this is the familiar three plus one pattern, only here it is one plus three. However, none of the English translations do a very good job of capturing the changes from section to section. They either ignore them (KJV) or add so many differences of their own that the subtler changes that Jesus makes are lost. For example, a keyword that is ignored is the Greek word that works very like our word "when," expressing a situation that is likely to happen. This word is repeated in the two later verses.

Wordplay: 

In the series of verses "I say" verses in the Sermon on the mount, Christ repeats the phrase "ego de lego" which is funny both because of the rhyme, but also because it accentuates the "ego." 

Humorously contrasting a series of phrases with each other. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ἐγὼ (pron 1st sg masc nom) "I" is from ego, which is the first person singular pronoun meaning "I." It also means "I at least," "for my part," "indeed," and for myself.

δὲ (partic) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

λέγω (verb 1st sg pres ind act) "Say" is from lego, which means "to recount," "to tell over," "to say," "to speak," "to teach," "to mean," "boast of," "tell of," "recite," nominate," and "command." Another Greek word spelled the same means "to pick up," "to choose for oneself," "to pick out," and "to count."

ὑμῖν (pron 2nd pl dat) "Unto you" is from humin, which is the 2nd person plural dative pronoun. Dative is the case which indicates to whom something is given.

ὅτι (adv/conj) "That" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that," "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

πᾶς (adj sg masc nom) "Whosoever" is from pas, which means "all," "the whole," "every," "anyone," "all kinds," and "anything."

(article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ὀργιζόμενος [6 verses](part sg pres mp masc nom) "Angry" is orgizo, which means "to be made angry," "to be provoked to anger," and "to be irritated."

τῷ (article sg masc dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). --

ἀδελφῷ (noun sg masc dat) "With...brother" is from adelphos,which means "son of the same mother," "kinsman," "colleague," "associate," and "brother."

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

ἔνοχος [3 verses] (adj sg masc nom) "In danger" is from enochos, which means "held in by," "bound by," "liable to," "subject to," "guilty," and "liable to a penalty for."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) "Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," and "is possible." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

τῇ  (article sg fem dat) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

κρίσει: (noun sg fem dat) "Of...judgment" is from krisis, which means "separating," "distinguishing," "judgment," "choice," "election," "trial," "dispute," "event," and "issue."

ὃς (pron sg masc nom) "Whosoever" is hos, which means "this," "that," "he," "she," "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

δ (partic) "And" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἂν (conj) Untranslated is ean, which is a conditional particle (derived from ei (if) and an (might)) which makes reference to a time and experience in the future that introduces but does not determine an event.

εἴπῃ (3rd sg aor subj act) "Shall say" is from eipon, which means "to speak," "to say," "to recite," "to address," "to mention," "to name," "to proclaim," "to plead," "to promise," and "to offer."

τῷ (article sg masc dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). -- untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

ἀδελφῷ (noun sg masc dat) "To...brother" is from adelphos, which means "son of the same mother," "kinsman," "colleague," "associate," and "brother."

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

Ῥακά, [unique]( noun pl neut voc) "Raka" is a debatable word. It could be an untranslated Aramaic word. It may be from a Hebrew term meaning "empty" or "empty-headed." Others claim it means "I spit on you" in one version of Aramaic. It is agreed to be an expression of contempt. However, it is also a Greek word, rakos (noun pl neut voc), which means "ragged, tattered clothing," that is, "rags."

ἔνοχος [3 verses] (adj sg masc nom) "In danger" is from enochos, which means "held in by," "bound by," "liable to," "subject to," "guilty," and "liable to a penalty for."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid)"Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," and "is possible." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

τῷ (article)   (article sg neut dat) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

συνεδρίῳ: [3 verses] (noun sg neut dat) "Of the council" is from synedrion, which means "council," "meeting," "councils of war," and "meeting room."

ὃς (pron sg masc nom) "Whoever" is from hos, which is the demonstrative pronoun in its various forms (hê, ho, gen. hou, hês, hou, etc. ; dat. pl. hois, hais, hois, etc. gen. hoou). It means "this," "that," "he," "she," "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

δ᾽ (partic) "And" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἂν (conj) Untranslated is ean, which is a conditional particle (derived from ei (if) and an (might)) which makes reference to a time and experience in the future that introduces but does not determine an event.

εἴπῃ (3rd sg aor subj act ) "Shall say" is from eipon, which means "to speak," "to say," "to recite," "to address," "to mention," "to name," "to proclaim," "to plead," "to promise," and "to offer."

Μωρέ,[6 verses] (adj sg masc voc) "Thou fool" is from moros which means "dull," "stupid," "sluggish," 'insipid," "blind," and "folly."

ἔνοχος [3 verses] (adj sg masc nom)"In danger" is from enochos, which means "held in by," "bound by," "liable to," "subject to," "guilty," and "liable to a penalty for."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid)"Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," and "is possible." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

εἰς (prep) "Of" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὴν (article g fem acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). --

γέενναν (noun sg fem acc) "Hell" is geenna, which is Greek for Gehenna, the valley of Hinnom (the Hebrew word), south of Jerusalem where trash, including diseased animals and human corpses was burned. A constant fire was kept burning there. This area was originally where children were sacrificed to Baal, and Baal (Beelzebub, "lord of the flies") is the name that Christ says others call him as the personification of evil.

τοῦ (article sg neut gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). --

πυρός. (noun sg neut gen) "Fire" is from pyr (pur), which means "fire," "sacrificial fire," "funeral fire," "hearth-fire," "lightning," "the light of torches," and "heat of fever."

KJV Analysis: 

But -- The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. When used in writing, it creates complex sentences, but when spoken, it makes a good pausing point so that an important or humorous word can follow.

I -- (MW) The verse starts with the Greek pronoun "I." Since, as the subject of the sentence, it is part of the verb, its explicit use accentuates who is speaking "I, myself."

say -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching. This Greek word rhymes with the Greek word used above meaning "I."

unto -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object.

you,  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc.

That  - The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

whosoever -- (WW) The word translated as "whosoever" is the Greek adjective meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everyone." It is not the word translated as "whosoever" in the previous verse, Matthew 5:21. This adjective modifies the following words.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

is -- This helping verb indicates the present tense of the verb.

angry -- (WF) The phrase "angry" is a participle, but it is in the form of an adjective. The verb means "to be irritated" and "to be provoked." So the sense is "the one being irritated." The form is passive. Add the previous adjective and it becomes "every one being irritated." It is in the form where these people do this to themselves.

with -- This word "with" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use. That preposition could be a  "to,"  "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at" or "on," depending on the context.  So it could mean "with the spirit," "by the spirit," "for the spirit" and so on.

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

brother -- The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate. The "with" comes from its form as an indirect object. However, given the nature of the previous verb as a verb of "becoming," the sense of "by...brother" works better.

without a cause -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "without a cause " in the Greek source.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves. "Is themselves

in danger  -- The Greek word translated as "in danger," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

of -- This word "of" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

judgment: -- Finally, the Greek word translated as "judgment" has the general meaning of a decision point. However, it also has the meaning of "separating," "choice," "dispute," "event," or "issue." This word is our source of the word "crisis." When referring to the legal proceedings, it means "a trial." However, it is introduced by a definite article, "the decision." It is a form that has a lot of uses in Greek, but the only ones the work well here declare a purpose, "for the decisions" or describe an instrument, "by the decision."

and -- (WW) -- The Greek word translated as "and" means "but," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  

whosoever -- The word translated as "whosoever " is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. This is not the "all" that was used in the previous phrase as "whosoever."

untranslated "when"-- (MW) The untranslated word "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when."

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

say "Say" is the most common Greek word that means "to say" and "to speak." It is not the word "tell" that begins this verse.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: That preposition could be a  "to,"  "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at" or "on," depending on the context.  So it could mean "with the spirit," "by the spirit," "for the spirit" and so on.

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

brother -- The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate. The "with" comes from its form as an indirect object. However, given the nature of the previous verb as a verb of "becoming," the sense of "by...brother" works better.

Raca, -- (UW) The word "Raca" is an untranslated word from the Greek source whose spelling is slightly changed (from raka to raca). There are two possibilities here. The first possibility is that the word is not in Greek, but an Aramaic insult, meaning "empty" or some other insult, which means Christ spoke here in Aramaic.The second possibility is less confusing. This is a Greek word that means "rags," It is in the proper form to be a name someone is called, matching the "thou fool" in the next phrase. This could also be an insult because clothes indicated status in Christ's society to a much greater degree than ours. Also, "rags" were associated with a woman's menstrual period then as now.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves.

in danger  -- The Greek word translated as "in danger," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

of -- This word "of" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

council: -- The word translated as "council" simply means "group meeting" but is thought to refer specifically to the civil courts of the period and may also have been the name for a high religious court. However, since this word is "adversarial" to "judgment" or "choice" it could be a play on the idea that high placed people are better dressed and therefore might make fun of someone else's clothes.

but --The Greek word translated as "but" means "but," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  

whosoever -- The word translated as "who" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. This is not the "all" that was used in the previous phrase as "whosoever."

untranslated "when"-- (MW) The untranslated word "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when."

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

say -- "Say" is the most common Greek word that means "to say" and "to speak." It is not the word "tell" that begins this verse.

Thou -- This is from the vocative form, that is, the form of address, of the following word.

fool, -- The Greek word translated as "fool" means "dull" and "stupid." This Greek word is the basis for the English word "moron," which technically means a mild mental disability. There is no "thou," that is, no second person pronoun here. It seems to be added to make the context of name-calling clearer. The form of the word can only be that which indicates someone being called by this word.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves.

in danger  -- The Greek word translated as "in danger," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

of --  (WW) The word translated as "of" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

hell --  (WW) The word "hell" is the name of an area, Gehenna, where a constant fire was kept for disposing of trash from Jerusalem.  This area was originally where children were sacrificed to Baal, and Baal (Beelzebub, "lord of the flies"), Christ's personification of evil. The point is less metaphysical, than rhetorical. Christ is making a point, but doing it through exaggeration. See this article on the words for "hell."  

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

fire. -- "Fire" is a noun means "fire," "sacrificial fire," "funeral fire," and so on, but Christ only uses this word to describe the fire of a trash dump. He usually uses it with the word that is translated as "hell" but which was the name of the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem. See the end of this article for more.

KJV Translation Issues: 

17
  • MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "whosoever" should be "all" or "every."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "angered" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "anger" is not an adjective, but a passive participle, "being angered."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "brother" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "without a cause " doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "and" should be "but."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "when" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "brother" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "Raca" means "rages as an untranslated Greek word, but may have other meanings in Aramaic and Hebrew.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "when" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "of" should be "into."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "hell" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "hell" should be "Gehenna."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "fire" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

But -- The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. When used in writing, it creates complex sentences, but when spoken, it makes a good pausing point so that an important or humorous word can follow.

I -- The verse starts with the Greek pronoun "I." Since, as the subject of the sentence, it is part of the verb, its explicit use accentuates who is speaking "I, myself."

tell -- The word translated as "tell" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching. This Greek word rhymes with the Greek word used above meaning "I."

you,  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc.

that  - The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

anyone -- (WW) The word translated as "anyone" is the Greek adjective meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everyone." It is not the word translated as "whosoever" in the previous verse, Matthew 5:21. This adjective modifies the following words.

who   -- (WW) This word is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

is -- This helping verb indicates the present tense of the verb.

angry -- (WF) The phrase "angry" is a participle, but it is in the form of an adjective. The verb means "to be irritated" and "to be provoked." So the sense is "the one being irritated." The form is passive. Add the previous adjective and it becomes "every one being irritated." It is in the form where these people do this to themselves.

with -- This word "with" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use. That preposition could be a  "to,"  "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at" or "on," depending on the context.  So it could mean "with the spirit," "by the spirit," "for the spirit" and so on.

a --(WW)  The word translated as "a" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

brother -- The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate. The "with" comes from its form as an indirect object. However, given the nature of the previous verb as a verb of "becoming," the sense of "by...brother" works better.

or sister -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "or sister " in the Greek source.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves. "Is themselves

subject   -- The Greek word translated as "subject," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

judgment: -- Finally, the Greek word translated as "judgment" has the general meaning of a decision point. However, it also has the meaning of "separating," "choice," "dispute," "event," or "issue." This word is our source of the word "crisis." When referring to the legal proceedings, it means "a trial." However, it is introduced by a definite article, "the decision." It is a form that has a lot of uses in Greek, but the only ones the work well here declare a purpose, "for the decisions" or describe an instrument, "by the decision."

Again-- (WW) -- The Greek word translated as "again" means "but," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  

anyone -- The word translated as "anyone " is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. This is not the "all" that was used in the previous phrase as "whosoever."

untranslated "when"-- (MW) The untranslated word "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when."

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source.

says "Says" is the most common Greek word that means "to say" and "to speak." It is not the word "tell" that begins this verse.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: That preposition could be a  "to,"  "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at" or "on," depending on the context.  So it could mean "with the spirit," "by the spirit," "for the spirit" and so on.

a --(WW)  The word translated as "a" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

brother -- The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate. The "with" comes from its form as an indirect object. However, given the nature of the previous verb as a verb of "becoming," the sense of "by...brother" works better.

or sister -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "or sister " in the Greek source.

Raca, -- (UW) The word "Raca" is an untranslated word from the Greek source whose spelling is slightly changed (from raka to raca). There are two possibilities here. The first possibility is that the word is not in Greek, but an Aramaic insult, meaning "empty" or some other insult, which means Christ spoke here in Aramaic.The second possibility is less confusing. This is a Greek word that means "rags," It is in the proper form to be a name someone is called, matching the "thou fool" in the next phrase. This could also be an insult because clothes indicated status in Christ's society to a much greater degree than ours. Also, "rags" were associated with a woman's menstrual period then as now.

is -- (WT) The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves.  This is the future tense, not present.

answerable  -- The Greek word translated as "answerable," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

court: -- The word translated as "court" simply means "group meeting" but is thought to refer specifically to the civil courts of the period and may also have been the name for a high religious court. However, since this word is "adversarial" to "judgment" or "choice" it could be a play on the idea that high placed people are better dressed and therefore might make fun of someone else's clothes.

And --The Greek word translated as "and" means "but," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  

anyone -- The word translated as "anyone " is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. This is not the "all" that was used in the previous phrase as "whosoever."

untranslated "when"-- (MW) The untranslated word "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when."

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source.

says -- "Says" is the most common Greek word that means "to say" and "to speak." It is not the word "tell" that begins this verse.

You -- This is from the vocative form, that is, the form of address, of the following word.

fool, -- The Greek word translated as "fool" means "dull" and "stupid." This Greek word is the basis for the English word "moron," which technically means a mild mental disability. There is no "thou," that is, no second person pronoun here. It seems to be added to make the context of name-calling clearer. The form of the word can only be that which indicates someone being called by this word.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves.

in danger  -- The Greek word translated as "in danger," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

of --  (WW) The word translated as "of" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more.

fire. -- "Fire" is a noun means "fire," "sacrificial fire," "funeral fire," and so on, but Christ only uses this word to describe the fire of a trash dump. He usually uses it with the word that is translated as "hell" but which was the name of the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem. See the end of this article for more.

of -- This word come from the genitive form of "fire" not "hell."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

hell -- (WW, WP) The word "hell" is the name of an area, Gehenna, where a constant fire was kept for disposing of trash from Jerusalem. This area was originally where children were sacrificed to Baal, and Baal (Beelzebub, "lord of the flies"), Christ's personification of evil. The point is less metaphysical, than rhetorical. Christ is making a point, but doing it through exaggeration. See this article on the words for "hell."

NIV Translation Issues: 

23
  • MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "anyone" should be "all" or "every."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "who" should be "the one."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "anger" is not an adjective, but a passive participle, "being angered."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "a" should be "his."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "brother" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "or sister" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "judgment" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "again" should be "but."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "when" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "a" should be "his."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "brother" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "or sister" doesn't exist in the source.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "Raca" means "rages as an untranslated Greek word, but may have other meanings in Aramaic and Hebrew.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "is" iis the present tense, but the verb is the future tense.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "and" should be "but."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "when" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "of" should be "into."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "hell" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "hell" should be "Gehenna."
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "hell" appears before "fire" not after it. It is "the Gehenna of the fire" not "the fire of hell."

3rd Analysis: 

But -- The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. When used in writing, it creates complex sentences, but when spoken, it makes a good pausing point so that an important or humorous word can follow.

I -- The verse starts with the Greek pronoun "I." Since, as the subject of the sentence, it is part of the verb, its explicit use accentuates who is speaking "I, myself."

say -- The word translated as "tell" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching. This Greek word rhymes with the Greek word used above meaning "I."

untranslated "you"-- (MW) The untranslated word "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc.

untranslated "that"-- (MW) The untranslated word "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

untranslated "all"-- (MW) The untranslated word "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everyone." It is not the word translated as "whosoever" in the previous verse, Matthew 5:21. This adjective modifies the following words.

if -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "if" in the Greek source.

you -- (WW) This word is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

are -- This helping verb indicates the present tense of the verb.

even -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "even" in the Greek source.

angry -- (WF) The phrase "angry" is a participle, but it is in the form of an adjective. The verb means "to be irritated" and "to be provoked." So the sense is "the one being irritated." The form is passive. Add the previous adjective and it becomes "every one being irritated." It is in the form where these people do this to themselves.

with -- This word "with" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use. That preposition could be a  "to,"  "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at" or "on," depending on the context.  So it could mean "with the spirit," "by the spirit," "for the spirit" and so on.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

someone -- (WW) The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate. The "with" comes from its form as an indirect object. However, given the nature of the previous verb as a verb of "becoming," the sense of "by...brother" works better.

untranslated "of his"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

you  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "you" in the Greek source.

are -- (WT) The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves. "Is themselves

subject   -- The Greek word translated as "subject," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

judgment: -- Finally, the Greek word translated as "judgment" has the general meaning of a decision point. However, it also has the meaning of "separating," "choice," "dispute," "event," or "issue." This word is our source of the word "crisis." When referring to the legal proceedings, it means "a trial." However, it is introduced by a definite article, "the decision." It is a form that has a lot of uses in Greek, but the only ones the work well here declare a purpose, "for the decisions" or describe an instrument, "by the decision."

untranslated "but"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "but" means "but," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  

untranslated "this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  "this" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

If -- The Greek word meaning "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when."

you  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "you" in the Greek source.

call -- "Call" is the most common Greek word that means "to say" and "to speak." It is not the word "tell" that begins this verse.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

someone -- (WW) The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate. The "with" comes from its form as an indirect object. However, given the nature of the previous verb as a verb of "becoming," the sense of "by...brother" works better.

untranslated "of his"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

an -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

idiot, -- The word "idiot" is an untranslated word from the Greek source whose spelling is slightly changed (from raka to raca). There are two possibilities here. The first possibility is that the word is not in Greek, but an Aramaic insult, meaning "empty" or some other insult, which means Christ spoke here in Aramaic.The second possibility is less confusing. This is a Greek word that means "rags," It is in the proper form to be a name someone is called, matching the "thou fool" in the next phrase. This could also be an insult because clothes indicated status in Christ's society to a much greater degree than ours. Also, "rags" were associated with a woman's menstrual period then as now.

you  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "you" in the Greek source.

are -- (WT) The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves. "Is themselves

in danger -- The Greek word translated as "in danger," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

 of being brought  -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as " of being brought" in the Greek source.

before -- (WW) This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

court: -- The word translated as "court" simply means "group meeting" but is thought to refer specifically to the civil courts of the period and may also have been the name for a high religious court. However, since this word is "adversarial" to "judgment" or "choice" it could be a play on the idea that high placed people are better dressed and therefore might make fun of someone else's clothes.

And --The Greek word translated as "and" means "but," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  

if -- The Greek word meaning "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when."

you  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "you" in the Greek source.

untranslated "this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "this" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. This is not the "all" that was used in the previous phrase as "whosoever."

curse -- (WW) "Curse" is the most common Greek word that means "to say" and "to speak." It is not the word "tell" that begins this verse.

fool, -- The Greek word translated as "fool" means "dull" and "stupid." This Greek word is the basis for the English word "moron," which technically means a mild mental disability. There is no "thou," that is, no second person pronoun here. It seems to be added to make the context of name-calling clearer. The form of the word can only be that which indicates someone being called by this word.

someone,  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "someone" in the Greek source.

you  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "you" in the Greek source.

are -- (WT) The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves. "Is themselves

in danger -- The Greek word translated as "in danger," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be." It is in the future tense, but it a form where the person acts on or for themselves.

in danger  -- The Greek word translated as "in danger," primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

of --  (WW) The word translated as "of" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more.

fires. -- (WN) "Fires" is a noun means "fire," "sacrificial fire," "funeral fire," and so on, but Christ only uses this word to describe the fire of a trash dump. He usually uses it with the word that is translated as "hell" but which was the name of the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem. See the end of this article for more.

of the fires of hell.

of -- This word come from the genitive form of "fire" not "hell."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

hell -- (WW, WP) The word "hell" is the name of an area, Gehenna, where a constant fire was kept for disposing of trash from Jerusalem. This area was originally where children were sacrificed to Baal, and Baal (Beelzebub, "lord of the flies"), Christ's personification of evil. The point is less metaphysical, than rhetorical. Christ is making a point, but doing it through exaggeration. See this article on the words for "hell." 

3rd Issue Count: 

37
  • MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "you" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "that" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "all" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "if" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "you" should be "the one."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "even" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "anger" is not an adjective, but a passive participle, "being angered."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "brother" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "someone" should be "brother."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "of his" after "brother" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "you" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "are" is the present tense but the verb is the future tense.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "judgment" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "but" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "this" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "you" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "brother" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "someone" should be "brother."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "of his" after "brother" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "Raca" means "rages as an untranslated Greek word, but may have other meanings in Aramaic and Hebrew.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "you" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "are" is the present tense but the verb is the future tense.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase " of being brought" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "before" should be "to."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "and" should be "but."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "you" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "this" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "curse" should be "say."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "someone" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "you" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "are" is the present tense but the verb is the future tense.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "of" should be "into."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "fire" is translated as plural but it is singular.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "hell" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "hell" should be "Gehenna."
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "hell" appears before "fire" not after it. It is "the Gehenna of the fire" not "the fire of hell."

evidence: 

22.00

Front Page Date: 

Apr 28 2020