Matthew 20:19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock,..

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

Jesus is leading the apostles up to Jerusalem

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And  they will give him over to the foreigners for mocking and whipping and staking and on the third day he will be awakened.

My Takeaway: 

What other do matter more than what happens to us.

KJV : 

Matthew 20:19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify [him]: and the third day he shall rise again.

NIV : 

Matthew 20:19 and will hand him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life!”

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse is extremely light-hearted, given its topic. It consists of a long series of "and" conjunctions connecting a bunch of ghastly verbs in the form of nouns. In Greek, they are all infinitive, introduce by an article, making them act as a noun describing the action. In English, we use the gerund, ending with "ing" as the verbal noun form. Notice that the emphasis in on what the foreigners do, not what happens to him, the verbs, except for "delivered/given over" being active, not passive.

The word translated as "crucify" didn't mean that in Jesus's time, though it has come to mean it since. It mean "to sake," that is, to hang up on a stake, not a cross.

Also the "arise" here is one of three different words Jesus uses to describe coming back from death. This one means "awakening." All of these words are offered in the passive: Jesus was raised by anouther, not by his won power.

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "shall arise" means to arise or to awaken. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

παραδώσουσιν [43 verses](verb 3rd pl fut ind act) "Deliver" is from paradidomi, which means "to give over to another," "to transmit," "to hand down," "to grant," "to teach," and "to bestow."

αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

τοῖς (article pl neut dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἔθνεσιν [22 verses](noun pl neut dat) "To the gentiles" is ethnos, which means "a number of people living together," "company," "body of men," "tribe," "a people," "nation," and (later) "foreign, barbarous nations." -- The word translated as "Gentiles" means "a group of people living together," a nation, a tribe, or a cast of people. Later it came to mean "barbarous nations" similar to our idea of ethnic people. It is in the same form as the "them" above, so "to them" or "for them."

εἰς (prep) Untranslated is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸ (article sg neut acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἐμπαῖξαι (verb aor inf act) "To Mock" is from empaizo, which means "to mock" and "to sport in." In the passive, it means "to be deluded," and "to be defrauded" of the revenues,

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

μαστιγῶσαι [5 verses](verb aor inf act) "Scourge" is mastigoo, which means "to whip" and "to flog."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

σταυρῶσαι, [3 verses](verb aor inf act) "To crucify" is stauroo, which means "to stake," "to crucify," "to be fenced with poles" or "piles driven into a foundation." From the root,staros, which means "an upright pole or stake." This term was used for a stake (or "pale") used for impaling and with the Christian era, the cross.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

τῇ (article sg fem dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

τρίτῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Third" is from tritos. which is the Greek word for "third" meanig both the third in an order and the fraction one third.

ἡμέρᾳ [96 verses](noun sg fem dat) "Day" is from hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life," "a time (poetic)," "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet," "tame (animals)," "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

ἐγερθήσεται. [41 verses](verb 3rd sg fut ind pass) "He shall rise" egeiro, which means "to awaken," "to stir up," and "to rouse." -

KJV Analysis: 

And  - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen.

deliver  - (WT) "Deliver" is from a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is the word Christ always used to describe people being "arrested" and taken to the authorities. In the previous verse, this was translated as "betray." "Deliver" is more accurate.  This is the future tense.

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Gentiles  - "Gentiles" is from the word from which we get our word "ethnic." It means, generally "a number of people living together," any "body of men," or "tribe," but Christ uses it more like "foreigners." The "gentiles" of Christ's time referred to the state power of Rome, but we can assume that it is any group of non-believers. In our time, it is, of course, the secular state.

missing "for"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure. It also means "for" a purpose, which is the sense here.

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

mock,  - "Mock" means "to mock," making fun of someone.

and - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen.

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

scourge, -- It means "to whip" and "to flog."

and - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen.

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

crucify  - "Crucify" mean literally "to stake," that is, to drive a stake into the ground or, to hang on a stake. It is from the Greek word for "stake," though it is often translated as "cross" in the Gospels. The Greek verb refers to driving a stake in the ground and was commonly used to describe building a fence, but we can also it referred to the torture of hanging on a stakes or impaling on one. The phrase often translated as "take up your cross" in the Gospels actually means "pull up your stakes," which could mean either fence posts or the stakes or poles that hold up a tent, which is more the source of the English phrase.

[him]: -- This English objective pronoun is added and not in the Greek source.   In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

and - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

third  - The "third" means both the third in an order and the fraction one third.

day -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

missing "be"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

rise  -  (WW) The word translated as "rise" means "to awaken," "to stir up," and "to rouse,"  but it is passive, not active, "will be awaken" or "will be roused." Jesus uses two other Greek terms to describe his resurrection. The KJV source uses a different one that the one in today's source, but what ever word he uses, the word is always in the passive. He is raised. He does not raise himself.

again -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "again" in the Greek source

KJV Translation Issues: 

5
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "will" is need to indicate the future tense.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "for" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "be" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "rise" should be "awaken."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "again" doesn't exist in the source.

NIV Analysis: 

and - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

hand - "Hand over" is from a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is the word Christ always used to describe people being "arrested" and taken to the authorities.

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

over -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Gentiles  - "Gentiles" is from the word from which we get our word "ethnic." It means, generally "a number of people living together," any "body of men," or "tribe," but Christ uses it more like "foreigners." The "gentiles" of Christ's time referred to the state power of Rome, but we can assume that it is any group of non-believers. In our time, it is, of course, the secular state.

missing "for"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure. It also means "for" a purpose, which is the sense here.

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

be -- (WF) This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive, but none of the following verbs are passive.

mocked ,  - "Mock" means "to mock," making fun of someone.

and - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen.

flogged , -- It means "to whip" and "to flog."

and - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen.

crucified - "Crucify" mean literally "to stake," that is, to drive a stake into the ground or, to hang on a stake. It is from the Greek word for "stake," though it is often translated as "cross" in the Gospels. The Greek verb refers to driving a stake in the ground and was commonly used to describe building a fence, but we can also it referred to the torture of hanging on a stakes or impaling on one. The phrase often translated as "take up your cross" in the Gospels actually means "pull up your stakes," which could mean either fence posts or the stakes or poles that hold up a tent, which is more the source of the English phrase.

missing "and"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen.

On  -- This word "on" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

third  - The "third" means both the third in an order and the fraction one third.

day -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

raised -  (WW) The word translated as "raised" means "to awaken," "to stir up," and "to rouse,"  but it is passive, not active, "will be awaken" or "will be roused." Jesus uses two other Greek terms to describe his resurrection. The KJV source uses a different one that the one in today's source, but what ever word he uses, the word is always in the passive. He is raised. He does not raise himself.

to life!-- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "to life" in the Greek source

NIV Translation Issues: 

5
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "for" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "be" indicates a passive form, but the verb is not passive.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "raised" should be "awaken."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "to life" doesn't exist in the source.

Front Page Date: 

May 22 2021