Matthew 21:39  And they caught him, and cast him

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

This continues the lesson about authority and trust to a story about how not trusting those in power leads to a predictable result.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And they got him, and tossed him out from the vineyard and destroyed him.

KJV : 

Matthew 21:39 And they caught him, and cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse is a good example of how Jesus uses certain words and exaggeration to lighten the story. The word translated as "caught/took" is more like our word "got," but here means getting in a strong grasp, so "seize," works well. The word translated as "tossed/threw" has its prefix, meaning "out of," is repeated in the preposition giving it a stronger sense, like "eject." (Note, this verb is unnecessary for the story, but added to create the three beats of good story-telling.  The "slew/killed" is also more extreme, more like "destroyed."

The feeling is a little like you would tell a story for children, making it dramatic and entertaining. The most extreme word, "destroyed" end the verse.

NIV : 

Matthew 21:39 So they took him and threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.

Wordplay: 

The casual word "toss" is contrasted with the exaggerated word "destroy." 

My Takeaway: 

Being a landlord is riskier than we think.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

λαβόντες [54 verse](part pl aor act masc nom) "They caught" is lambano means to "take", "take hold of", "grasp", "seize", "catch", "overtake", "find out", "detect", "take as", "take [food or drugs]", "understand", "take in hand", "undertake", "take in", "hold", "get", "receive [things]", "receive hospitably", "receive in marriage", "receive as produce", "profit", "admit", "initiate", "take hold of", "lay hold on", "seize and keep hold of", "obtain possession of", "lay hands upon", "find fault with", "censure," "to apprehend with the senses", "to take hold of," and "to seize." It is also specifically used to mean "seized with emotion."

αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

ἐξέβαλον [54 verse](verb 3rd pl aor ind act)"Cast" is from ekballo and means "throw out", "cast out of a place,"and "expose." Ek means "out of", "from," and "away from." Ballo is "to throw" or "to scatter."

ἔξω (prep) "From" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from." -- The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" of "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

τοῦ -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

ἀμπελῶνος [19 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Vineyard" is ampelon which means simply "vineyard."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

ἀπέκτειναν. [31 verses](verb 3rd pl aor ind act) "Killed" is apokteino, which means "to kill," and "to slay." It combines the word for "to slay" (kteino) with the proposition, apo, indicating separation, meaning "from" or "away from."but it is a stronger form than the normal verb kteino. It is more like our "destroy."

KJV Analysis: 

And  - -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

they  - -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

caught  - (CW) The word translated as "caught" means "take", "take hold of", "grasp", or "seize." However, it also means "receive," which is usually the way it is translated in the Gospels, in the same sense that we use "get" to mean "receive" and has many different uses as we use "get" in English. Among these are the ideas of "understanding" and "possessing." It is not an active verb, but a verb used as an adjective, "getting him."

him, - The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

cast  - "Cast " is from a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. However, because "tossed" usually works better since that captures the casualness of the word. However, since the prefix of the verb, meaning out, is repeated the sense is even more extreme, more like "ejected."

him -- This English objective pronoun is added and not in the Greek source.   In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

out of -- The Greek preposition translated as "out of" means "out of" or "from."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

vineyard, -- The Greek word for "vineyard" only means "vineyard.

and - -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

slew  - (CW) "Slew" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because the base word means "slay." The Greek source has the sense of "kill off," that is, destroy in a more thorough way. This exaggeration is contrasted with the casualness of the previous word.

him.  - -- This English objective pronoun is added and not in the Greek source.   In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

KJV Translation Issues: 

2
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "caught" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "slew" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.

NIV Analysis: 

So - -- (WW) The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

they  - -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

took -  The word translated as "caught" primarily means "take." However, it also means "receive," which is usually the way it is translated in the Gospels, in the same sense that we use "get" to mean "receive" and has many different uses as we use "get" in English. Among these are the ideas of "understanding" and "possessing." It is not an active verb, but a verb used as an adjective, "getting him."

him, - The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

threw - "Threw" is from a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. However, because "tossed" usually works better since that captures the casualness of the word. However, since the prefix of the verb, meaning out, is repeated the sense is even more extreme, more like "ejected."

him -- This English objective pronoun is added and not in the Greek source.   In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

out of -- The Greek preposition translated as "out of" means "out of" or "from."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

vineyard, -- The Greek word for "vineyard" only means "vineyard.

and - -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

killed .- (CW) "Killed" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because the base word means "slay." The Greek source has the sense of "kill off," that is, destroy in a more thorough way. This exaggeration is contrasted with the casualness of the previous word.

him.  - -- This English objective pronoun is added and not in the Greek source.   In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "so" should be "and."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "killed" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.

Front Page Date: 

Jun 20 2021