Matthew 22:4 Again, he sent forth other servants,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

After his opponents leave, Jesus addresses the crowd telling a parable comparing the realm of the skies to a man, a king.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Once more, he dispatched different slaves, saying, "Tell to the ones having been called, look, this luncheon of mine I have prepared, those steers of mine also those fatted having been sacrificed and all things are ready. Come into the nuptials. 

My Takeaway: 

Life is a party that we have been invited into.

KJV : 

Matthew 22:4 Again, he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my dinner: my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the marriage.

NIV : 

Matthew 22:4 Then he sent some more servants and said, ‘Tell those who have been invited that I have prepared my dinner: My oxen and fattened cattle have been butchered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding banquet.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Jesus uses a number of uncommon words here. Two words he uses nowhere else, "oxen" and "fatlings." The word for "dinner" is only used twice. The word translated as "killed/butchered" is only used five times.

The word for "wedding" here and in throughout this parable, is plural. This word appears four times in the Septuagint, always translated into English as "feast," from a Hebrew word mištê (מִשְׁתֶּה), which means "feast." It is used more often in the NT, always referring to a wedding, but only in the plural in this parable. Since this refers only to one event (elsewhere a singular "lunch" is used to describe it)  the word seems to mean the same in singular and plural coincidently, like our "nuptial," which is also used in the singular and plural.

Greek Vocabulary: 

πάλιν [23 verses](adv) "Again" is from palin (palin), which means "back," "backward," "contradiction," "again," "once more," and "in turn."

ἀπέστειλεν [60 verses](verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "He sent forth" is apostello, which means "to send off," "to send away," or "to dispatch."

ἄλλους [34 verses](adj pl masc acc) "Other" is from allos, which means "another," "one besides," "of another sort," "different," "other than what is true," "as well," "besides," (with numerals: "yet," "still," "further"), "of other sort," "other than what is," "untrue," "unreal," "other than right," "wrong," "bad," "unworthy," [with an article] "the rest," "all besides," and [in series] "one...another."

δούλους [56 verses] (noun pl masc acc) "Servants" is from doulos, which means a "slave," a "born bondsman," or "one made a slave."

λέγων [264 verses](part sg pres act masc nom) "Saying" is from lego, which means "to recount," "to tell over," "to say," "to speak," "to teach," "to mean," "boast of," "tell of," "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself," "pick up," "gather," "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelt the same means "to lay," "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep."

Εἴπατε [162 verses](verb 2nd pl aor imperat act) "Tell" is eipon, which means "to speak," "to say," "to recite," "to address," "to mention," "to name," "to proclaim," "to plead," "to promise," and "to offer."

τοῖς (article pl masc dat)  "Them" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

κεκλημένοις [38 verses](part pl perf mp masc dat) "which were bidden" is kaleo, which means "call," "summon," "invite," "invoke," "call by name," and "demand."

Ἰδοὺ [52 verses](adv, verb 2nd sg aor imperat mid) "Behold is idou, which means "to behold," "to see," and "to perceive." It acts as an adverbial phrase in this form meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!' It is a form of the verb eido, which means "to see."

τὸ  (article sg neut acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἄριστόν[2 verses] (noun sg neut acc) "Dinner" is from ariston, which originally meant "breakfast" but later meant "luncheon."

μου (pron 1st sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

ἡτοίμακα, [13 verses](verb 1st sg perf ind act) "I have prepared" is hetoimazô, which means to "get ready," "prepare," "make ready," and "to cause to prepare."

οἱ  (article pl masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ταῦροί [1 verse](noun pl masc nom) "Oxen" is tauros, which means "bull."

μου (pron 1st sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

τὰ (article pl neut acc)  "My" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

σιτιστὰ [1 verse](adj pl neut acc) "Fatlings" is from sitistos, which is thought to be a form of sisteus, which means "fed up," and "fatted." Adjective form of the verb sitizo (σιτίζω), that means "to fatten.

τεθυμένα, [5 verses] (part sg perf mp neut/fem nom) "Killed" is thyro, which means to "offer by burning," "sacrifice," "slay," "slaughter," "celebrate [with sacrifices, offerings]," "the flesh of the sacrifice."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

πάντα [212 verses](adj pl neut nom) "All things" is from pas, which means "all," "the whole," "every," "anyone," "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way," "on every side," "in every way," and "altogether."

ἕτοιμα: [8 verses](adj pl neut nom) "Are ready" is hetoimos, which means "at hand," "ready," "prepared," of persons, "ready," "active," "zealous," of the mind, "ready," "bold," and as an adverb, "readily," "willingly."

δεῦτε [8 verses](adv)"Come" is deute, which is an adverb that means "come here" and "come hither." It is not a verb so it doesn't contain the regular information about the subject found in a Greek verb. -- "Come" is not from a verb but from an adverb used like saying "over here" in English to call someone to where you are.

εἰς (prep) "Unto" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τοὺς (article pl neut acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

γάμους. [10 verses](noun pl masc acc) "The marriage" is both from the from gamos, which means "marriage," "wedding," and "wedlock."

KJV Analysis: 

Again, - The Greek word translated as "again" means "back," "backward," "contradiction," "once more," and "in turn."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

sent  - The "sent" here is from a word that means "to send off" and "dispatch." It is the source of our word "apostle."

forth -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "out."

other  - The word translated as "other" means "other," "different," and "other than true."

servants,  - The noun translated as "servant" means "slave." It is translated as "servant" to update the Bible.s

saying,  - The word translated as "saying" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching. It is in the form of an adjective, "saying."

Tell  - "Tell" (a different Greek word from above) is from a verb means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming. It is in the form of a command.

them  - -- (CW) The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the ones." . The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

which -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "which" in the Greek source. It was added because the next verb was translated as active rather than a participle.

are -- (WT) This helping verb "are" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This is present tense, but the verb is the past perfect, "have been called."

bidden, " - "Bidden" The word is like our word "call" because it means both "to summon" and also "to name." This first form is an infinitive ("to call") and the second is in the form of a noun ("the ones having been called.")

Behold,  - "Behold" is from an adverb meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!"

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

have  - -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

prepared  - The verb translated as "prepared" means to "get ready," "prepare," "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." It is in a form that indicates the action has been completed.

my  - -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

dinner:  - The word translated as "dinner" means "breakfast" or "lunch," but "dinner" refers to the chief meal of the day which can be at midday.

my  - -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

oxen  - "Oxen" is from the Greek word for "bull." This is the only verse in which Jesus uses this word.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

my - (WW) The word translated as "my" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." . The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

fatlings  - "Fatlings" is an invented noun from the verb meaning to "fatten." With the mistranslated "my," which is really the definite article, so "the ones fattened." The word is only used by Jesus here and nowhere else in the New or Old Testament.

are -- (WT) This helping verb "are" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This is present tense, but the verb is the past perfect, "have been called."

killed,  - (CW) The word translated as "killed" is not a word that Christ commonly uses for "slay" or "kill." It specifically means "to offer by burning" and refers to slaying for a sacrifice. However, the general sense is "slaughter" because it refers to an animal or sacrifice. However, it could also mean cooked because sacrifices were burnt.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

all  - The word translated as "all things" is one word meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. As an adverb, it means "in every way," "on every side," and "altogether."

things  - There is no word, "things," in the Greek source, but this word comes from the neuter, plural form of the previous adjective.

are -- There is no verb "are" in the Greek source. It is implied by the equating of "all" with "ready" both in the Greek form of subjects.

ready:  - "Ready" is an adjective meaning "at hand," "ready," and "prepared."

come - "Come" is not from a verb but from an adverb used like saying "over here!" in English to call someone to where you are.

unto -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." . The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

marriage.  - The word for "wedding" here is plural. In the previous verse, it was translated as "marriage." The word is plural, but seems to refer to a single wedding

KJV Translation Issues: 

7
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "them" is not the common word usually translated as "them."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "which" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "are" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have been called."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "dinner" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "oxen" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "my" should be "then."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "are" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have been called."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "killed" is not the common word usually translated as "killed."

NIV Analysis: 

missing "again"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "again" means "back," "backward," "contradiction," "once more," and "in turn."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

sent  - The "sent" here is from a word that means "to send off" and "dispatch." It is the source of our word "apostle."

some - (WW) The word translated as "other" means "other," "different," and "other than true."

more  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "more" in the Greek source.

servants,  - The noun translated as "servant" means "slave." It is translated as "servant" to update the Bible.

and  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "and" in the Greek source.

said,  - - (WF) The word translated as "said" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching. It is in the form of an adjective, "saying."

Tell  - "Tell" (a different Greek word from above) is from a verb means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming. It is in the form of a command.

those - -- The word translated as "those" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the ones." . The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source. It was added because the next verb was translated as active rather than a participle.

have -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

been -- This helping verb "been" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

invited , " - "Invited " The word is like our word "call" because it means both "to summon" and also "to name." This first form is an infinitive ("to call") and the second is in the form of a noun ("the ones having been called.")

that ,  - (WW) "That" is from an adverb meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!"

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

have  - -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

prepared  - The verb translated as "prepared" means to "get ready," "prepare," "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." It is in a form that indicates the action has been completed.

my  - -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

dinner:  - The word translated as "dinner" means "breakfast" or "lunch," but "dinner" refers to the chief meal of the day which can be at midday.

My - -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

oxen  - "Oxen" is from the Greek word for "bull." This is the only verse in which Jesus uses this word.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

fattened - "Fattened " is an invented noun from the verb meaning to "fatten." With the mistranslated "my," which is really the definite article, so "the ones fattened." The word is only used by Jesus here and nowhere else in the New or Old Testament.

cattle  - - (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "cattle" in the Greek source.

have -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

been -- This helping verb "been" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

butchered,  - (CW) The word translated as "butchered" is not a word that Christ commonly uses for "slay" or "kill." It specifically means "to offer by burning" and refers to slaying for a sacrifice. However, the general sense is "slaughter" because it refers to an animal or sacrifice. However, it could also mean cooked because sacrifices were burnt. It doesn't mean butcher.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

everything - (WN) The word translated as "everything " is one word meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. The word is plural, not singular.

is -- There is no verb "is" in the Greek source. It is implied by the equating of "all" with "ready" both in the Greek form of subjects.

ready:  - "Ready" is an adjective meaning "at hand," "ready," and "prepared."

Come - "Come" is not from a verb but from an adverb used like saying "over here!" in English to call someone to where you are.

to -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

wedding   - The word for "wedding" here is plural. In the previous verse, it was translated as "marriage." The word is plural, but seems to refer to a single wedding.

banquet -- -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "banquet" in the Greek source. Weddings were assumed to have banquets, but the word does not appear.

NIV Translation Issues: 

12
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "again" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "some" should be "other."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "more" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "said" is not an active verb but a participle, "saying."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "that" should be "behold."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "dinner" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "oxen" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "my" should be "then."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "cattle" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "butchered" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.

Front Page Date: 

Jun 27 2021