Matthew 22:43 How then did David in spirit

Spoken to: 

The Pharisees

Context: 

Jesus asks who the Messiah's father is. They respond "David" and this is Jesus's answer.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

How then in divine inspiration, did David call him "lord," saying:

KJV : 

Matthew 22:43 How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying,

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Notice that Jesus characterizes David as speaking "in spirit." This is not meant to be cryptic but clearly understood by his listeners that he was speaking knowledge given to him from a higher power.  Modern Bible's add "the" before the "Spirit" to make it a reference to the third person of the Trinity, but this is not what Jesus said. It is interesting that the KJV translates this verse accurately word-for-word, but that so much is added in the NIV to make it more palatable to today's dogma.

NIV : 

Matthew 22:43  “How is it then that David, speaking by the Spirit, calls him ‘Lord’? For he says,

My Takeaway: 

Many of our ideas come from a spiritual source.

Greek Vocabulary: 

Πῶς [36 verses](pron indecl form)"How" is pos, which means "how", "how in the world", "how then", "in any way", "at all", "by any mean", "in a certain way,"and "I suppose."

οὖν [82 verses](adv)  "Then" is from oun, which means "certainly", "in fact", "really", "in fact," "so" and "then" (continuing a narrative), and "then" and "therefore."

Δαυεὶδ [5 verses] (Hebrew name) "David" is from is from the Greek Dabid, which is the Greek form of the Hebrew name.

ἐν [413 verses](prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

πνεύματι [40 verses](noun sg neut dat) "Spirit" is pneuma, which means "blast", "wind", "breath", "the breath of life", "divine inspiration", "a spiritual or immaterial being," and "the spirit" of a man.

καλεῖc[38 verses] (verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "Call" is kaleo, which means "call", "summon", "invite", "invoke", "call by name," and "demand."

αὐτὸν [720 verses]((adj sg masc acc) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

κύριον [92 verses](noun sg masc acc) "Lord" is from kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family."

λέγων[264 verses] (part sg pres act masc nom) "I tell" is from lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelt the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep."

KJV Analysis: 

How  -- "How" is the adverb that means "how", "by any means", and "I suppose". This is a common interrogatory pronoun used by Jesus.

then  - The Greek word translated as "then" either emphasizes the truth of something ("certainly", "really") or it simply continues an existing narrative.

doth -- This helping verb is used to create questions, commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

David -- "David" is from the Greek spelling of the Hebrew name.

in  - The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among." It also has the sense of "in one's power," which is the idea here.

spirit  - The word translated as "spirit" means "breath", "wind," and "blast," but it also means the "breath of life," which is an invisible force of life, from which we get to the idea of "spirit" and "spiritual." Like "spirit" in English, it can also mean "attitude" or "motivation.' More about the meaning of this word in this article. Jesus often uses it to mean someone, in this case David, was speaking under divine inspiration, within the power of the spirit of the divine.

call  - The term translated as "call" is like our word "call" means both "to summon" and also "to name."

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

Lord,  - The word translated as "lord," means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in posession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family."

saying,  - The word translated as "saying" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. The form is a present participle.

KJV Translation Issues: 

0

NIV Analysis: 

How  -- "How" is the adverb that means "how", "by any means", and "I suppose". This is a common interrogatory pronoun used by Jesus.

is it -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "is it" in the Greek source.

then  - The Greek word translated as "then" either emphasizes the truth of something ("certainly", "really") or it simply continues an existing narrative.

that -- -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "that" in the Greek source. It was added because a verb was added above.

David -- "David" is from the Greek spelling of the Hebrew name.

speaking  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "speaking" in the Greek source.

by - (WW) The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among." It also has the sense of "in one's power," which is the idea here. The word "by" would require a different Greek preposition.

the - (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "the " in the Greek source. It was added to make the following word seem more like it refers to the third person of the Trinity.

Spirit- The word translated as "spirit" means "breath", "wind," and "blast," but it also means the "breath of life," which is an invisible force of life, from which we get to the idea of "spirit" and "spiritual." Like "spirit" in English, it can also mean "attitude" or "motivation.' More about the meaning of this word in this article. Jesus often uses it to mean someone, in this case David, was speaking under divine inspiration, within the power of the spirit of the divine.

calls  - The term translated as "call" is like our word "call" means both "to summon" and also "to name."

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

Lord,  - The word translated as "lord," means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in posession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family."

For   -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "speaking" in the Greek source.

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

says, - (WF)  The word translated as "says" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. The form is a present participle.

NIV Translation Issues: 

7
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "it is" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "that" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "speaking" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "by" should be "in."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "for" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "says" is not an active verb but a participle, "saying."

Front Page Date: 

Jul 21 2021