Matthew 22:44 The LORD said unto my Lord,

Spoken to: 

The Pharisees

Context: 

Jesus asks who the Messiah's father is. They respond "David" and this is Jesus's answer.

Greek : 

Matthew 22:44 Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου;

Psalm 110:1, εἶπεν ὁ κύριος τῷ κυρίῳ μου κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου

Literal Verse: 

He said, a Lord to that master of mine, Drop down by my right hand until when I might place those haters of yours below those feet of yours.

My Takeaway: 

A child can never lord anything over his parents.

KJV : 

Matthew 22:44 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool?

NIV : 

Matthew 22:44 The Lord said to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand until I put your enemies under your feet

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The Greek of this verse is almost identical to the Greek in the Septuagint for Psalm 110:1, which is what Jesus is quoting here. It is only missing a definite article before the first "lord." The English translated of this verse is based on Greek rather than the original Hebrew. There is one major difference between original Hebrew and the Greek version in the Septuagint. The first "Lord" in the original Hebrew is the word for Lord, but the name of God, Yehovah.  

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Εἶπεν [162 verses]( verb 3rd sg aor ind act ) "Said" is eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer." -- "Said" is from the Greek verb that means "to say" and "to speak" also.

Κύριος [92 verses] (noun sg masc nom) "Lord" is kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." -- The word translated as "master" is the same word that is often translated as "Lord" or "the Lord" in the NT. It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." It is the specific terms for the master of slaves or servants, but it was a common term of respect both for those in authority and who were honored. It was the term people used to address Christ, even though he had no formal authority. Today, we would say "boss" or "chief".

τῷ  (article sg masc dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

κυρίῳ [92 verses] (noun sg masc dat) "Lord" is kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." -- The word translated as "master" is the same word that is often translated as "Lord" or "the Lord" in the NT. It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." It is the specific terms for the master of slaves or servants, but it was a common term of respect both for those in authority and who were honored. It was the term people used to address Christ, even though he had no formal authority. Today, we would say "boss" or "chief".

μου [132 verses] (pro sg masc gen) "My" is mou, which mean "my," or "mine." -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. 

Κάθου [2 verses](verb aor imperat mid ) "Sit" is kathiemi, [not kathemai, which means to "be seated", "sit."], which means to "let fall", "drop", "send down", "pour down", "run down (of rivers)," in a general sense, "set in motion," "employ," "allow to return from exile," "swoop down (like a wind)" and, in the passive, "to be put in motion." It it a general term that has a number of specialized meanings.

ἐκ [121 verses] (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

δεξιῶν [13 verses]( noun pl fem gen ) "Right hand" is dexios, which means, as an adjective, "on the right hand", "fortunate", "skillful", "ready", "clever", "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

μου [132 verses] (pro sg masc gen) "My" is mou, which mean "my," or "mine." -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. 

ἕως [63 verses](conj) "Till" is heos which means "until", "till," and "in order that" and "up to the point that." -- The word translated as "until" means "until" but it also means "in order that."

ἂν [162 verses](conj) "If" is ean, which is a conditional particle (derived from ei (if) and an (might), which makes reference to a time and experience in the future that introduces but does not determine an event. -

θῶ [24 verses](verb 1st sg aor subj act )  "I make" is tithemi which means "to put", "to place", "to propose", "to suggest", "o deposit", "to set up", "to dedicate", "to assign", "to award", "to agree upon", "to institute", "to establish", "to make", "to work", "to prepare oneself," "to bear arms [military]," "to lay down and surrender [military]," "to lay in the grave", "to bury," and "to put words on paper [writing]," and a metaphor for "to put in one's mind." -- The Greek wrd translated as "I make" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "to put," and "to place," but which has many related meanings as well. This verb is in a form that indicates it is possible but not certain.

τοὺς (article pl masc acc )  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐχθρούς [12 verses] ( adj pl masc acc ) "Enemy" is echthros, which means "the hated", "the hateful", "the hostile", "the enemy", "the alienated," and "the hating."

σου [144 verses](adj sg masc gen) "Thy" is sou which means "of you" and "your."  -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun.

ὑποκάτω [5 times](adv/prep) "Under" is hypokato, which means "below" and  "under".

τῶν (article pl masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ποδῶν [19 verses] ( noun pl masc gen ) "Footstool" is pous, which means a "foot", "a talon [of a bird]," and the concept of "to trample" or "to tred upon."

σου: [144 verses](adj sg masc gen) "Thy" is sou which means "of you" and "your."  -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun.

KJV Analysis: 

The  - -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

LORD  - The Greek word translated as "LORD," means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." However, two different Hebrew words are translated as this Greek word from the OT. In the original Hebrew Psalm 110:1, this word was the Hebrew Yehova, the proper name for God, which is shown as LORD in capitals in the KJV.

said  - "Said" is from the Greek that means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has a sense of addressing and proclaiming.

unto -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". 

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Lord,  - The same Greek word is translated as "lord," but in the OT, the Hebrew is 'adown, which has a very similar in meaning to the Greek word, referring to whoever is in authority in a given situation.

Sit  - (CW)  "Sit" is from a Greek verb that means "to let fall" or "to drop," but it has a lot of casual uses such as putting things in motion and employing them. It, like many Greek words that, have the sense of "sit" begins with the prefix that means "down."  It is not the common word for "sit," but a variation found in the Greek Septuagint that Jesus only uses in when quoting the OT.

thou -- This is from the second-person, singular, imperative form of the verb's middle voice where the subject is commanded to act on themselves, "sit yourself."

on  - The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" of "from" but its meaning comes from the verb. If the word above refers to motion, it means "from" or "by." If it describes a place, it means "beyond." If it describes being in rest, it means "on."

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". 

right hand,  - The word translated as "right hand" means, as a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

till  - The word translated as "till" means "until" but it also means "in order that."

missing "when"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  meaning "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when".

I  - -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

make - (WW) The Greek word translated as "I make" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "to put," and "to place," but which has many related meanings as well. This verb is in a form that indicates it is possible but not certain.

thine -- The word translated as "thy" is the genitive form of the singular, second-person pronoun, which is most commonly the possessive form. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

enemies  - The word translated as "enemies" is an adjective meaning "hated" and "hating." It is used as a noun, being introduced by an article, so "the hated" or "the hating."

missing "under"  -- (MW) The untranslated word means "under," "by", or "with." Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is the genitive form of the singular, second-person pronoun, which is most commonly the possessive form. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

footstool?  - -- (WW) The word translated as "feet" refers to human feet, birds's talons, and trampling things.

KJV Translation Issues: 

8
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before the second "lord" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "sit" is not the common word usually translated as "sit."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "when" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before the "enemies" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "under" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before the "feet" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "footstool" should be "feet."

NIV Analysis: 

The  - -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

Lord - The Greek word translated as "LORD," means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." However, two different Hebrew words are translated as this Greek word from the OT. In the original Hebrew Psalm 110:1, this word was the Hebrew Yehova, the proper name for God, which is shown as LORD in capitals in the KJV.

said  - "Said" is from the Greek that means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has a sense of addressing and proclaiming.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". 

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Lord,  - The same Greek word is translated as "lord," but in the OT, the Hebrew is 'adown, which has a very similar in meaning to the Greek word, referring to whoever is in authority in a given situation.

Sit  - (CW)  "Sit" is from a Greek verb that means "to let fall" or "to drop," but it has a lot of casual uses such as putting things in motion and employing them. It, like many Greek words that, have the sense of "sit" begins with the prefix that means "down."  It is not the common word for "sit," but a variation found in the Greek Septuagint that Jesus only uses in when quoting the OT.

missing "yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous verb is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act on "yourself," "for yourself" or "by yourself."

at - The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" of "from" but its meaning comes from the verb. If the word above refers to motion, it means "from" or "by." If it describes a place, it means "beyond." If it describes being in rest, it means "on."

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". 

right hand,  - The word translated as "right hand" means, as a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

until - The word translated as "until" means "until" but it also means "in order that."

missing "when"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  meaning "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when".

I  - -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

put - The Greek word translated as "I put" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "to put," and "to place," but which has many related meanings as well. This verb is in a form that indicates it is possible but not certain.

your -- The word translated as "your " is the genitive form of the singular, second-person pronoun, which is most commonly the possessive form. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

enemies  - The word translated as "enemies" is an adjective meaning "hated" and "hating." It is used as a noun, being introduced by an article, so "the hated" or "the hating."

under -- The preposition means "under," "by", or "with." Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

your -- The word translated as "your " is the genitive form of the singular, second-person pronoun, which is most commonly the possessive form. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

feet?  - -- The word translated as "feet" refers to human feet, birds's talons, and trampling things.

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before the second "lord" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "sit" is not the common word usually translated as "sit."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "when" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before the "enemies" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before the "feet" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Jul 22 2021