Matthew 20:23 You shall drink indeed of my cup,

Spoken to: 

group

Context: 

Jesus answers his own question about James and John being able to drink from his cup.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

This, indeed, cup of mine you will drink for yourselves. The, however, seating beyond my right (fortunate) sides and beyond my left (honored) sides is not mine to offer, but it has been prepared by that Father of mine.

My Takeaway: 

Jesus is a man who knows his limitations.

KJV : 

Matthew 20:23 Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.

NIV : 

Matthew 20:23 You will indeed drink from my cup, but to sit at my right or left is not for me to grant. These places belong to those for whom they have been prepared by my Father.”

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The word for "left" did not have the "sinister" (the Latin word) nature it acquired later, but was from a term from "favored" or "honored" in Greek. These two adjectives are plural, referring to places, not just a place.

The important tense here is the past perfect tense of the word "prepared." Indicating that this was completed in the past, in this case, as a commitment to others.

 

Wordplay: 

The word "drink" also means "celebrate."

The word "right" means "lucky."

The word "left" means "honored".

The idea of drinking from a cup of suffering (in the previous verse, Matthew 20:22) is clearly turned around into a celebration. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Τὸ (article sg neut acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one."

μὲν [31 verses](partic)"Indeed" is from men, which is generally used to express certainty and means "indeed," "certainly," "surely," and "truly."

ποτήριόν [14 verses](noun sg neut acc) "Cup" is from poterion, which means "a drinking-cup," "a wine-cup," "a jar," and "a receptacle" for offerings in the temple.

μου (noun sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

πίεσθε, [36 verses](verb 2nd pl fut ind mid) "Ye shall drink" is pino, which means "to drink," "to celebrate," and "soak up."

τὸ (article sg neut acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun but here is separated by the conjunction below.

δὲ (partic) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

καθίσαι [15 verses](verb aor inf act) "To sit" is kathizô, which means "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to post," "to take seats," "to convene," "to appoint," "to establish," "to put in a certain condition," "to reside," "to sink down," "to run aground [for ships]," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." From the Greek kata ("down") hedraios ("to settle") .

ἐκ (prep) "On" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of," "from," "by," "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond," "outside of",  3) [of succession] "after," "from;" 4) [of rest] "on," "in," 5) [of time] "since," "from," "at," "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of," "made from."

δεξιῶν [13 verses](adj pl fem gen) "Right" is dexios, which means, as an adjective, "on the right hand," "fortunate," "skillful," "ready," "clever," "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance," "pledge," "treaty,"

μου (noun sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἐξ (prep) "From" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of," "from," "by," "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond," "outside of," "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after," "from;" 4) [of rest] "on," "in," 5) [of time] "since," "from," "at," "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of," "made from."

εὐωνύμων [4 verses](adj pl masc gen) "Left " is euonymos, which means "of good name," "honored," "expressed in well-chosen terms," "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left," "on the left hand," and "bad omens."

οὐκ (partic) "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἔστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is from eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

ἐμὸν (adj sg masc/neut nom/acc) "Mine" is from emou, which means "me," and "mine".

δοῦναι, [147 verses](verb aor inf act) "To give" is didomi, which means "to give," "to grant," "to hand over," "give freely," "to be ready to give," "offer," "appoint," "establish," "grant" another to one's entreaties, "pardon" at one's request, "forgive" one a thing, "condone." "concede" in argument, "give oneself up," "devote oneself," of the laws, "grant permission," and "to describe."

​​​​​​ἀλλ᾽ [154 verses] (conj) "But" is from alla, which means "otherwise," "but," "still," "at least," "except," "yet," nevertheless," "rather," "moreover," and "nay." -- The Greek word translated as "but" denote an exception or simple opposition. "Still" or "however" work well when the word isn't being used as a conjunction, especially when it begins a sentence.

οἷς (pron pl masc/neut dat) "it shall be given to them for whom" is from hos, which means "him," "her," or, in the plural, "them." It is a for which means "to, for, or by" the person.

ἡτοίμασται [13 verses] (verb 3rd sg perf ind mp) "It is prepared" is hetoimazô, which means to "get ready," "prepare," "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." In the passive, it means to "prepare for oneself," "prepare oneself," "make oneself ready," and "to be prepared."

ὑπὸ [29 verses](prep) "Of" is from hypo (hupo), which means [with genitive] "from under (of motion)," "down under," under, beneath," indicating a cause with passive verbs, "by," "under," or "with," "under the cover or protection of," "of the agency of feelings, passions," "expressing subjection or dependence," "subordinate," "subject to;" [with accusative] "towards" and "under" (to express motion), "under" (without a sense of motion), "subjection," "control," "dependence," of Time, "in the course of," "during," "about," as an adverb, "under," "below," beneath, the agency or influence under which a thing is done"by," "before,' and "under," (with genitive and passive verbs of cause).

τοῦ - (article sg masc gen)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

πατρός (noun sg masc gen) "The Father" is from pater, which means "father," "grandfather," "author," "parent," and "forefathers."

μου. (pron sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

KJV Analysis: 

Ye -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

drink  - The word for "drink" has a double meaning, "to drink" also means "to celebrate."

indeed  - The word translated as "indeed" expresses certainty and means "indeed," "certainly," "surely," and "truly."

of -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "of" in the Greek source.

my - "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

cup,  - The word for "cup," it means "a drinking-cup," "a wine-cup," "a jar," and "a receptacle" for offerings in the temple.

and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

but  - The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

sit  - The word for "to sit" means both to "seat" or "place" someone in a position and to "sit" and take a seat. It also has a number of special meanings. Here, it appears in the form of a noun introduced by an article. In English, we might say "the seating."

on  - (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "on" usually means "out of" of "from." But when referring to being at rest, it means "on." There are, however, two other prepositions more commonly used with "right" to mean "on the right." Since this refers to multiple places, beyond seems to work better.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

right  - (WN) The word means "right" or "right side" but has a number of other positive meanings including "fortunate" and "skillful." The form is plural.

hand, -- This word is implied by the adjective but there is not word meaning "hand" here.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

on  - (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "on" usually means "out of" of "from." But when referring to being at rest, it means "on." There are, however, two other prepositions more commonly used with "right" to mean "on the right." Since this refers to multiple places, beyond seems to work better.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

left,  -  (WN) The word for "left" is also plural. It primarily means "of good name," "honored," and similar positive things, and is only a euphemism for "left" and "bad omens." The form is plural.

is  - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. 

not  - The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact, in fact, which is captured in English with adverbs like "really."

mine --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". 

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

give, - The word translated as "give" is the common word for "give" in Greek, but it has a number of special uses that our word does not have, including "to forgive," "to offer," and so on.

but -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise". Jesus often uses this conjunction to connect a negative clause, not doing something, with a positive one, "instead do this." The "but" is a different word than "but" above.

it shall be given to them -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "it shall be given to them" in the Greek source.

for  - -- This word "for" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

whom -- (WN)  -- The word translated as "whom" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.- It is plural so "those" works better here.

it  - -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

is -- (WT) This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. However, the tense of the verb is the past perfect, completed in the past so "have been" in English.

prepared  - The word translated as "prepared" means to "get ready," "prepare," "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." It is in the perfect tense, meaning an action completed in the past, so this has been done already. It is passive.

of  - (WW) The word translated as "of" primarily means "by," "under," or "with" (with the genitive and a passive verb). Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion. It has the sense of something being done under the power of someone.

my  - -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."  

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Father - "Father" is the common word that Jesus uses to address his own father, though it can mean any male ancestor. It is in the genitive form (see word above).

KJV Translation Issues: 

12
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "of" doesn't exist in the source.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek words translated as "and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "on" is not the common word usually translated as "on."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "right" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "right places."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "on" is not the common word usually translated as "on."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "left" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "left places."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "but" is not the common word usually translated as "but."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "it shall be given to them" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "whom" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "those."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect tense.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "of" should be "by."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "father" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

You -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

indeed  - The word translated as "indeed" expresses certainty and means "indeed," "certainly," "surely," and "truly."

drink  - The word for "drink" has a double meaning, "to drink" also means "to celebrate."

from -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "from " in the Greek source.

my - "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

cup,  - The word for "cup" means "a drinking-cup," "a wine-cup," "a jar," and "a receptacle" for offerings in the temple.

but  - The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

sit  - The word for "to sit" means both to "seat" or "place" someone in a position and to "sit" and take a seat. It also has a number of special meanings. Here, it appears in the form of a noun introduced by an article. In English, we might say "the seating."

at - (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "on" usually means "out of" of "from." But when referring to being at rest, it means "on." There are, however, two other prepositions more commonly used with "right" to mean "on the right." Since this refers to multiple places, beyond seems to work better.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

right  - (WN) The word means "right" or "right side" but has a number of other positive meanings including "fortunate" and "skillful." The form is plural.

hand, -- This word is implied by the adjective but there is not word meaning "hand" here.

or -- (WW) The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

missing "beyond"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "beyond" usually means "out of" of "from." But when referring to being at rest, it means "on." There are, however, two other prepositions more commonly used with "right" to mean "on the right." Since this refers to multiple places, beyond seems to work better.

missing "my"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "my" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

left,  - (WN) The word for "left" is also plural. It primarily means "of good name," "honored," and similar positive things, and is only a euphemism for "left" and "bad omens." The form is plural.

is  - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. 

not  - The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact, in fact, which is captured in English with adverbs like "really."

for -- (WW) This word "to" comes from a dative case of the following word, but the word in the genitive, so "mine" or "of me."

me --  "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me". 

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

grant, - The word translated as "grant" is the common word for "give" in Greek, but it has a number of special uses that our word does not have, including "to forgive," "to offer," and so on.

missing "instead"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "instead" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise". Jesus often uses this conjunction to connect a negative clause, not doing something, with a positive one, "instead do this." The "but" is a different word than "but" above.

These places belong to those -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "These places belong to those " in the Greek source.

for  - -- This word "for" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

whom -- (WN)  -- The word translated as "whom" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.- It is plural so "those" works better here.

they - -- (WN) This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

have -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

been -- This helping verb "has" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. However, the tense of the verb is the past perfect, completed in the past so "have been" in English.

prepared  - The word translated as "prepared" means to "get ready," "prepare," "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." It is in the perfect tense, meaning an action completed in the past, so this has been done already. It is passive.

by  - The word translated as "of" primarily means "by," "under," or "with" (with the genitive and a passive verb). Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion. It has the sense of something being done under the power of someone.

my  - -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."  

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Father - "Father" is the common word that Jesus uses to address his own father, though it can mean any male ancestor. It is in the genitive form (see word above).

NIV Translation Issues: 

13
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "from" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "at" is not the common word usually translated as "at."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "right" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "right places."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "or" should be "and."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "beyond" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "my" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "left" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "left places."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "instead" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "it shall be given to them" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "whom" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "those."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "they" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "it."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect tense.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "father" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

May 25 2021