Matthew 24:9 Then shall they deliver you up

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

A long section about "the end of the world" or, more precisely, "the culmination of an era."

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Then they will give you over into oppression and they will kill you. And you will exist being hated beneath all the peoples, through that name of mine.

My Takeaway: 

People hate others due to their associations.

KJV : 

Matthew 24:9 Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and you shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake.

NIV : 

Matthew 24:9 Then you will be handed over to be persecuted and put to death, and you will be hated by all nations because of me.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse continues the problems we have seen in this section because some of the words do not match the way that translators want them to be read. However, the translation errors are more a matter of form than substance.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

τότε [53 verses](adv) "Then" is from tote, which means "at that time" and "then."

παραδώσουσιν paradidomi,(verb 3rd pl fut ind act or part pl fut act masc/neut dat) "Deliver you up" is from paradidomi, which means "to give over to another," "to transmit," "to hand down," "to grant," "to teach," and "to bestow." -

ὑμᾶς [210 verses](pron 2nd pl acc) "You" is from humas which is the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -- The "you" here is plural, indicating many of Christ's listeners.

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

θλίψιν [9 verses](noun sg fem acc) "Afflicted" is thlipsis, which means "pressure," "crushing," and "oppression." Elsewhere, it is translated as "tribulations."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv)  "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἀποκτενοῦσιν [31 verses]((verb 3rd pl fut ind act) "To kill" is apokteino, which means "to kill," and "to slay." It combines the word for "to slay" (kteino) with the proposition, apo, indicating separation, meaning "from" or "away from."but it is a stronger form than the normal verb kteino. It is more like our "destroy."

ὑμᾶς [210 verses], (pron 2nd pl acc) "You" is from humas which is the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -- The "you" here is plural, indicating many of Christ's listeners.

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv)  And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἔσεσθε.[614 verses](verb 2nd pl fut ind), is eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.") -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." -- The verb here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition.

μισούμενοι [20 verses](part pl pres mp masc nom) "Hate" is miseo, which means "to hate" and in passive, "to be hated." -- "Hated" is from a Greek verb meaning "to hate."

ὑπὸ [29 verses](prep)  "Of" is hypo (hupo), which means [with genitive] "from under (of motion)," "down under," under, beneath," indicating a cause with passive verbs, "by," "under," or "with," "under the cover or protection of," "of the agency of feelings, passions," "expressing subjection or dependence," "subordinate," "subject to;" [with accusative] "towards" and "under" (to express motion), "under" (without a sense of motion), "subjection," "control," "dependence," of Time, "in the course of," "during," "about," as an adverb, "under," "below," beneath, the agency or influence under which a thing is done"by," "before,' and "under," (with genitive and passive verbs of cause). -- The word translated as "of" primarily means "by," "under," or "with" (with the genitive and a passive verb). Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

πάντων [212 verses](adj pl masc gen) "All" is from pas, which means "all," "the whole," "every," "anyone," "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way," "on every side," "in every way," and "altogether." -- The word translated as "all" is from the Greek adjective meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way," "on every side," and "altogether."

τῶν [821 verses](article pl neut gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἐθνῶν [22 verses](noun pl neut gen) "Nations" is ethnos, which means "a number of people living together," "company," "body of men," "tribe," "a people," "nation," and (later) "foreign, barbarous nations." -

διὰ  [88 verses](prep)  "Through" is from dia which means "through," "in the midst of," "in a line (movement)," "throughout (time)," "by (causal)," "among," of persons, "thanks to," "by aid of," in Prose, "by reason of," "on account of," and "between." -- The word translated as "through" means "through," in the midst of," or "by (a cause)."

τὸ [821 verses](article sg neut nom/acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ὄνομά [47 verses](noun sg neut nom/acc) "Name" is from onoma, which means "name." It means both the reputation of "fame," and "a name and nothing else," as opposed to a real person. Acting in someone's name means to act on their behalf, as their representative. -- The Greek word translated as "name" is much more complicated than it might at first appear. It can simply mean a "name" as in English, this can be many things. It doesn't mean the thing itself, but what people call it. For example, it can mean a "false name," or "a pretense" as we say "this is a marriage in name only." It can also mean representing another person's authority, as we say, "he is acting in the name of the boss."

μου. [132 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Me" is from emou, which means "me," and "mine." -- "Me" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

KJV Analysis: 

Then -- The "then"  is from an adverb meaning "when," "at what time," "at some time or other," "at some unknown time, and "at some time in the future."

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

deliver  - "Deliver " is from a compound word that literally means "to give over."

you -- The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object.

up -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "over."

to -- The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

be -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "be" in the Greek source.

afflicted,  - (WF) Afflicted" is a noun that means "pressure," "crushing," and "oppression." Elsewhere, it is translated as "tribulations." It is not an adjective.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

kill  - "Kill" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because its root word means "slay." The Greek source has the sense of "to kill off," that is, destroy in a more thorough way. When we talk about "destroying" someone, we use it to mean destroying their reputation, the strength of their spirit and ideas as well as physically killing them. This is more the sense here.

you: -- The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - The " be" verb here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. Its form is the second person future, the "you shall be" part, but the way it is translated in the KJV (makes it look like a passive form, describing "being hated" by someone else. This is not the form of this verb of the following one. We use the verb "to be" in English as a "helper" to create passive forms. Ancient Greek does not. Greek uses the verb endings. Translating "shall be" as "shall exist" gets us away from the problem in English. A better translation in these situations is "exist."

hated  - (WF) "Hated" is from a Greek verb meaning "to hate." However, it is in the form of a present participle (hating or the one hating), so it can be used as an adjective or noun. However, it is in a voice that indicates is either passive, "being hated" or the middle voice, the actor (subject) is acting (verb) on himself (object), "hating yourself."  The previous "exists" verb doesn't make it passive, but its form does.

of  - (WW) The word translated as "of" primarily means "by," "under," or "with" as it appears here. Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

all  - The word translated as "all" is one word meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas.

nations  - The word translated as "nations" means"a group of people living together," a nation, a tribe, or a cast of people. Later it came to mean "barbarous nations" similar to our idea of ethnic people.

for  - (WW) "For" is from a word that means "through," in the midst of," or "by (a cause)." Of persons, it means "thanks to," "by aid of," but in prose, "by reason of," "on account of." Of course, Christ did not speak prose and he is speaking of a person, himself. This phrase has a humorous sense after all the warnings.

my  - "My" is from the Greek pronoun in a form that means "my," or "mine."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

name's  - (WF) The Greek word translated as "name" is much more complicated than it might at first appear. It can simply mean a "name" as in English, this can be many things. It doesn't mean the thing itself, but what people call it. For example, it can mean a "false name," or "a pretense" as we say "this is a marriage in name only." It can also mean representing another person's authority, as we say, "he is acting in the name of the boss."

sake. - (IW) There is no word meaning "sake" in Greek. This is important because there is a specific Greek word that means "for [some] sake" and Christ uses it frequently. If Jesus had meant to say "for my sake," he would have used this word. This is not what he meant to say.

KJV Translation Issues: 

7
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "be" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "afflicted" is not an adjective but a noun, "pressure."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "hated" is not a passive verb but a participle, "being hated."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "of" should be "under."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "for" should be "through."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "name" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "name's" is not possessive form.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "sake" doesn't exist in the source.

NIV Analysis: 

Then you handed over to be and put to death, and you will be hated by all nations because of me.

Then -- The "then"  is from an adverb meaning "when," "at what time," "at some time or other," "at some unknown time, and "at some time in the future."

you -- (WF) The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object. It is not the subject.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - (WV) This indicates a passive verb but the verb is active.

handed - "Handed" is from a compound word that literally means "to give over."

over -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "over."

to -- The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

be -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "be" in the Greek source.

persecuted,  - (WF) Persecuted" is a noun that means "pressure," "crushing," and "oppression." Elsewhere, it is translated as "tribulations." It is not an adjective.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

kill  - "Kill" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because its root word means "slay." The Greek source has the sense of "to kill off," that is, destroy in a more thorough way. When we talk about "destroying" someone, we use it to mean destroying their reputation, the strength of their spirit and ideas as well as physically killing them. This is more the sense here.

you: -- The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - The " be" verb here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. Its form is the second person future, the "you shall be" part, but the way it is translated in the KJV (makes it look like a passive form, describing "being hated" by someone else. This is not the form of this verb of the following one. We use the verb "to be" in English as a "helper" to create passive forms. Ancient Greek does not. Greek uses the verb endings. Translating "shall be" as "shall exist" gets us away from the problem in English. A better translation in these situations is "exist."

hated  - (WF) "Hated" is from a Greek verb meaning "to hate." However, it is in the form of a present participle (hating or the one hating), so it can be used as an adjective or noun. However, it is in a voice that indicates is either passive, "being hated" or the middle voice, the actor (subject) is acting (verb) on himself (object), "hating yourself."  The previous "exists" verb doesn't make it passive, but its form does.

by - (WW) The word translated as "of" primarily means "by," "under," or "with" as it appears here. Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

all  - The word translated as "all" is one word meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas.

nations  - The word translated as "nations" means"a group of people living together," a nation, a tribe, or a cast of people. Later it came to mean "barbarous nations" similar to our idea of ethnic people.

because - (WW) "Because " is from a word that means "through," in the midst of," or "by (a cause)." Of persons, it means "thanks to," "by aid of," but in prose, "by reason of," "on account of." Of course, Christ did not speak prose and he is speaking of a person, himself. This phrase has a humorous sense after all the warnings.

of - (IW) The word "of" doesn't exist in the source.

me  - (WF) "My" is from the Greek pronoun in a form that means "my," or "mine."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

missing "name"  -- (MW) The untranslated words "name" is much more complicated than it might at first appear. It can simply mean a "name" as in English, this can be many things. It doesn't mean the thing itself, but what people call it. For example, it can mean a "false name," or "a pretense" as we say "this is a marriage in name only." It can also mean representing another person's authority, as we say, "he is acting in the name of the boss."

NIV Translation Issues: 

11
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "be" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "you" is not a subject but an object.
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb here is translated as passive but it is active.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "persecuted" is not an adjective but a noun, "pressure."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "hated" is not a passive verb but a participle, "being hated."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "by" should be "under."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "because" should be "through."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "of" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "me" is not an object, but a possessive.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "name" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "name" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Sep 6 2021