Matthew 24:31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

A long section about "the end of the world" or, more precisely, "the culmination of an era."

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And he will send those messengers of his along with a war-horn, a great one. And they will gather together those chosen of his out of the four quarters, from heights of skies, as far as the heights of it.

My Takeaway: 

Portents bring together those who have recognized them into a new era.

KJV : 

Matthew 24:31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

NIV : 

Matthew 24:31 And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The "send" verb in the initial "send his angels" phrase is the root word for "apostles." "Angels" is an untranslated word that means "messengers, so this starts sounding like Jesus sending out his apostles, not spiritual beings. 

The term translated as "trumpet" has a double meaning of "comet," one of the main sky omens of the ancient world. This connects this verse to a number of previous verses mentioning phenomena in the skies. This word appears dozens of times in the Greek OT, always translated as "trumpet" or "cornet," but it always appears with the Greek word for either "hear" or "sound," which doesn't appear here. The trumpet involved is specifically a war-trumpet and all the OT uses to refer to war and similar times of crisis, Matthew 24:6.

As we saw with the previous verse, this is "from the four winds" is a paraphrasing of the Septuagint, the Greek Old Testament, in this case, from Jer 49:36. The word translated as "end" and "other" means "furthest or highest points." It exists in the OT Greek, but it is translated as a city name, Elam, an Assyrian word meaning "heights."  Both words here are plural as is the OT word. The word "heavens" or "skies" is also plural.

The last phrase is not a "to the other," but "as far as the furthest points of it." It is more like repetition for emphasis than a description of a span. Jesus's Greek has a way of saying "from one to another" that is not used here. This repetition doesn't exist in the OT source.

This verse is clearly saying that the chosen are gathered together from the highest points of skies. Does this refer to the "realm of the skies" rather than the physical skies? Do the highest points mean the most spiritually advanced? In Matthew 24:16 Jesus advised everyone to flee for the mountains, so this phrase may refer to the survivors who followed Jesus's advice.

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ [1089 verses](prep/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἀποστελεῖ [60 verses](verb 3rd sg fut ind act) "He shall send" is from apostello, which means "to send off," "to send away," or "to dispatch."

τοὺς [821 verses](article pl masc/fem acc)Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἀγγέλους [25 verses](noun pl masc/fem acc) "Angels" is aggelos, which means "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use.

αὐτοῦ [720 verses](adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

μετὰ [103](prep) "With" is from meta, which means "with," "in the midst of," "among," "between," "in common," "along with," "by the aid of," "in one's dealings with," "into the middle of," "coming into," "in pursuit of," "after," "behind," "according to," and "next afterward."

σάλπιγγος [1 verse](noun sg fem gen) "Trumpet" is salpigx, which means "war-trumpet," but it is also the name of a bird and a kind of comet.

μεγάλης, [47 verses](adj sg fem gen) "Great" is megas, which means "big," "full-grown," "vast," "high," "great," "mighty," "strong (of the elements),""loud" (of sounds), "over-great (with a bad sense), "impressive" (of style), and "long" ( of days).

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἐπισυνάξουσιν” [5 verses] (verb 3rd pl fut ind act) "They shall gather together" is from episynago, which means "to collect and bring to a place." It also means to "bring into" a conversation or to "infer" or "conclude."

τοὺς [821 verses] (article pl masc acc) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐκλεκτοὺς [8 verses](adj pl masc acc) "Elect" is eklektos, which means "picked out," "select," "choice," and "pure."

αὐτοῦ [720 verses](adj sg masc/neut gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

ἐκ [121 verses] (prep) "From" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of," "from," "by," "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond," "outside of," "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after," "from;" 4) [of rest] "on," "in," 5) [of time] "since," "from," "at," "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of," "made from."

τῶν [821 verses](article pl masc gen) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

τεσσάρων [2 verse](noun pl masc gen) "Four" is from tessares, which means "four."

ἀνέμων [6 verses](noun pl masc gen) "Winds" is from anemos, which means "wind," "a cardinal point," or "quarter." It means both the physical wind and the direction from which the wind comes.

ἀπ᾽ [190 verses]​(prep)"From" is from apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

ἄκρων [3 verses](noun pl fem gen) "One end" is akron, which means "highest," "furthest point," "outermost," "mountain top," "edge," "peak," "headland," "extremity," and "end."

οὐρανῶν [111 verses](noun pl masc gen) "Heaven" is from the Greek ouranos, which means "heaven as in the vault of the sky," "heaven as the seat of the gods," "the sky," "the universe," and "the climate."

ἕως  [63 verses](conj)"To" is heos which means "until," "till," and "in order that" and "up to the point that."

[τῶν] [821 verses](article pl fem gen) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

ἄκρων [3 verses](noun pl fem gen) "the other" is from akron, which means "highest," "furthest point," "outermost," "mountain top," "edge," "peak," "headland," "extremity," and "end."

αὺτῶν.” [720 verses](adj pl masc/fem/neut gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

KJV Analysis: 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

send --The "he shall send" is from a word that means "to send off" and "dispatch." It is the source of our word "apostle."

his  -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

angels -- (UW) "Angels" is from a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT. The introduction of the idea of "angels," with wings and such, comes other religions. However, the word "messenger" is usually used in Matthew to refer to messengers from God, who Christ says do not have bodies like ours. However, in Matthew 11:10, the same word is translated as "messenger" when used to quote scripture referring to those sent by John the Baptist.

with -- "With" is from the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "in the midst of."

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

great -- The word translated as "great" means "big," "high" "great," and "impressive."

sound -- -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "sound" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

trumpet, -- (CW) "Trumpet" is translated from a Greek word that means "war-trumpet," but it was also the name for a type of comet. Given that the context of the last several verses refers to heavenly bodies and omens, a "great" comet makes more sense than a "great" trumpet, especially since the word "sound" does not appear. The translation to trumpet began in the Latin Vulgate where it was translated as the great voice of a tuba.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the following verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

gather  -  The Greek verb translated as "gather" means "to collect," "to bring in," "to accumulate," and "to count up."

together -- This is from the prefix that means "together" of the previous verb.

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "the" -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

elect - (UW) "Elect" is from an adjective that means "picked out," "select," "choice," and "pure." It is used as a noun there, "the ones selected." Our English word is adapted from Biblical Greek through Latin.

from -- (CW)The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases usually use with "of." However, it is a different preposition than the "from" below so "out of" works better.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

four --  "Four" is a noun form of the word "four."

winds,  - (CW) "Winds" is the Greek noun that means "wind," "a cardinal point," or "quarter." It means both the physical wind and the direction from which the wind comes. The sense here is the directions.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

one -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "one" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

end -- (CW, WN) "End" is a noun that means "highest," "furthest point," "mountain top," "peak," "headland," "extremity," and "end." The word is plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

heaven  - (WN) The word translated as "heaven" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. More about the word in this article. The word is plural

to -- (CW) The word translated as "to" means "until" but it also means "as far as." It is not one of the Greek prepositions normally translated as "to."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

other. -- (WW, WN) "Other" is a noun that means "highest," "furthest point," "mountain top," "peak," "headland," "extremity," and "end." This is not the word that means "other" in Greek. The word is plural.

untranslated -- (MW) -- The untranslated word is usually translated as "its" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

KJV Translation Issues: 

15
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "angels" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "angels" means "messengers." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "sound" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "trumpet" does not capture the meaning of the word in context.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" before "elect" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "elect" means "chosen." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "from" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "winds" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "one" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "to" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "end" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "end" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "furthest points."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "heaven" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "skies."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "other" means "furthest points."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "other" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "furthest points."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The final pronoun "his" is not shown in the English translation

NIV Analysis: 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

send --The "he shall send" is from a word that means "to send off" and "dispatch." It is the source of our word "apostle."

his  -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

angels -- (UW) "Angels" is from a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT. The introduction of the idea of "angels," with wings and such, comes other religions. However, the word "messenger" is usually used in Matthew to refer to messengers from God, who Christ says do not have bodies like ours. However, in Matthew 11:10, the same word is translated as "messenger" when used to quote scripture referring to those sent by John the Baptist.

with -- "With" is from the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "in the midst of."

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

loud -- (WW) The word translated as "loud " means "big," "high" "great," and "impressive."

trumpet, -- (CW) "Trumpet" is translated from a Greek word that means "war-trumpet," but it was also the name for a type of comet. Given that the context of the last several verses refers to heavenly bodies and omens, a "great" comet makes more sense than a "great" trumpet, especially since the word "sound" does not appear. The translation to trumpet began in the Latin Vulgate where it was translated as the great voice of a tuba.

call  - (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "call" in the source we use today..

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the following verb.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

gather  -  The Greek verb translated as "gather" means "to collect," "to bring in," "to accumulate," and "to count up."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "the" -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

elect - (UW) "Elect" is from an adjective that means "picked out," "select," "choice," and "pure." It is used as a noun there, "the ones selected." Our English word is adapted from Biblical Greek through Latin.

from -- (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of." However, it is a different preposition than the "from" below so "out of" works better.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

four --  "Four" is a noun form of the word "four."

winds,  - (CW) "Winds" is the Greek noun that means "wind," "a cardinal point," or "quarter." It means both the physical wind and the direction from which the wind comes. The sense here is the directions.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

one -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "one" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used. It was added for clarity.

end -- (CW, WN) "End" is a noun that means "highest," "furthest point," "mountain top," "peak," "headland," "extremity," and "end." The word is plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today.

heavens  - The word translated as "heaven" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. More about the word in this article. When it is used in the plural, as it is here, Christ usually uses it to refer to the realm of God beyond earth rather than the sky

to -- (CW) The word translated as "to" means "until" but it also means "as far as." It is not one of the Greek prepositions normally translated as "to."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

other. -- (WW, WN) "Other" is a noun that means "highest," "furthest point," "mountain top," "peak," "headland," "extremity," and "end." This is not the word that means "other" in Greek.

untranslated -- (MW) -- The untranslated word is usually translated as "its" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

NIV Translation Issues: 

15
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "angels" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "angels" means "messengers." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "sound" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "trumpet" does not capture the meaning of the word in context.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" before "elect" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "elect" means "chosen." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "winds" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "one" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "from" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "to" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "end" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "end" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "furthest points."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "other" means "furthest points."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "other" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "furthest points."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The final pronoun "his" is not shown in the English translation

Front Page Date: 

Sep 28 2021