Matthew 25:41 Then shall he said also to them on the left hand...

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

A parable about the final judgment of the sheep and the goats.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Then he will also said to the ones out on an honored side, "Be driven away from me, you having cursed yourselves, into the fire, the perpetual one,  the one having been prepared by/for the slander and his messengers.

My Takeaway: 

There is always plenty of fuel for the perpetual fire made by slanderers.

KJV : 

Matthew 25:41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:​

NIV : 

Matthew 25:41 “Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Several things are hidden here, including the nature of the "fire," who prepared it, and the meaning of "devil" and "angels."

The "cursed" is either passive or the middle voice, so either "having been cursed" or, my preference, "having cursed yourself."

"Fire" is a noun that means "fire," "sacrificial fire," "funeral fire," and so on, but Jesus only uses this word to describe the fire of a trash dump. Jesus often uses it with the word that is translated as "hell" but which was the name of the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem. The phrase it is in is actually "this fire, the perpetual one, that one having been prepared."

The "for" comes from the dative form of "angles and messengers" but this could also be a "by." Using the dative form instead of a preposition keeps this phrase ambiguous, "by/for the slanderer and those messengers of his." The "by" fits with the "cursed yourselves" idea.

The term translated as "the devil" is an adjective, not a noun, that means "slanderous." Introduced by an article ("the") it becomes a noun and means "the slanderer" and "the backbiter" as in "the one slandering." Jesus uses it to describe someone who degrades people and things, often by lying or misleading. Jesus only mentions the "slanderer" four times in Matthew: during the parable of the sower (Matthew 13:39, Luke 8:12 ), as a name for religious opponents (John 8:44), and in this verse.

"Angels" is from a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT.

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "the left hand" primarily means "honored" and also means fortunate.

Greek Vocabulary: 

τότε [53 verses](adv) "Then" is from tote, which means "at that time" and "then."

ἐρεῖ [162 verses] (verb 3rd sg fut ind act) "He shall say" is from eipon, which means "to speak," "to say," "to recite," "to address," "to mention," "to name," "to proclaim," "to plead," "to promise," and "to offer."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "Also" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." " Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

τοῖς [821 verses](article pl masc dat) "Unto them" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐξ [121 verses] (prep) "On" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of," "from," "by," "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond," "outside of," "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after," "from;" 4) [of rest] "on," "in," 5) [of time] "since," "from," "at," "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of," "made from."

εὐωνύμων [4 verses](adj pl masc gen) "The left hand" is euonymos, which means "of good name," "honored," "expressed in well-chosen terms," "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left," "on the left hand," and "bad omens." The normal Greek word for "left" is aristeros, which also means "left" and "sinister."

Πορεύεσθε [54 verses]((verb 2nd pl pres imperat mp) "Depart" is from poreuo, which means "make to go," "carry," or "convey," and "bring." In the passive, it means "to be driven," "go," "march," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT.

ἀπ [190 verses]​(prep) "From" is from apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

ἐμοῦ [239 verses](adj sg masc gen) "Me" is from mou (emou), which means "me," and "mine." As a genitive object means movement away from something or a position away from something else.

κατηραμένοι [2 verses](part pl perf mp masc nom/voc) "Ye cursed" is from kataraomai, which means "to call down curses upon," "curse," and "execrate."

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸ [821 verses](article sg neut acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

πῦρ [16 verses](noun sg neut acc) "Fire" is from pyr (pur), which means "fire," "sacrificial fire," "funeral fire," "hearth-fire," "lightning," "the light of torches," and "heat of fever."

τὸ [821 verses](article sg neut acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

αἰώνιον [23 verses](adj sg neut acc) "Everlasting" is from aionios, which means "lasting for an age," "perpetual," and "eternal." From "aion" which is used in the bible to mean an "age."

τὸ [821 verses](article sg neut acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἡτοιμασμένον [13 verses] (part sg perf mp neut acc) "Prepared" is from hetoimazo, which means "to get ready," "to be prepared," and "to cause to be prepared."

τῷ [821 verses](article sg masc dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

διαβόλῳ (adj sg masc dat) "The devil" is from diabolos, which means "slanderous," "backbiting," and "slanderer."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

τοῖς [821 verses](article pl masc dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἀγγέλοις (noun pl masc dat) "Angels" is from aggelos, which means "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use. --

αὐτοῦ [720 verses](adj sg masc gen)  "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

KJV Analysis: 

Then -- The Greek word for "then" means "at this time" or "then." With the subjective negative, the sense is "not when."

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

say - "Say" is from means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming.

also -- The Greek word translated as "also" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

unto -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

them-- (CW) The word translated as "them" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. It is not the pronoun normally translated as "them."

on  -- (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." It is not the word translated as "on" but

the-- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source.

left hand,  - The word for "the left hand" is also plural. It primarily means "of a good name," "honored," and similar positive things, and is only a euphemism for "left." It is not the normal Greek word for "left" which also means "sinister."

Depart  - (WF) The Greek verb translated as "depart" means "to lead over," "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to depart from life." Christ uses it to say "get away" with the "from me" that follows. It is in the form of a command, but in the form where the subject acts upon themselves, so "get yourselves away from me" is the complete sense here. This verb is passive or middle voice, so "be driven."

from  - The word translated as "from" means "from" in both a location and when referring to a source.

me,  - "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

ye - This is from the vocative form of the noun that means it names the person being talked to.

cursed,  - (WV, WT)"Cursed" is from an unusual word for Christ to use. It means "to call down curses upon." It is in the form of an adjective and in the form of one acting on themselves. It is either in the passive or middle voices. It is also in the perfect tense, something completed in the past,  so "having been cursed" or "having curse yourselves."

into  -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

missing "the one"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

everlasting  - "Everlasting" is an adjective based on the word that means "age" or "eon." It has the sense of "perpetual" or "ageless." This actually follows the "fire."

missing "that"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

fire,  - "Fire" is a noun that means "fire," "sacrificial fire," "funeral fire," and so on, but Jesus only uses this word to describe the fire of a trash dump. Jesus often uses it with the word that is translated as "hell" but which was the name of the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem.

missing "the one"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

prepared  - (WV, WT) "Prepared" is from a compound verb that means "to get ready," "to cause to be prepared," "to prepare oneself," and, in the form of an adjective used as a noun so "the one having prepared itself." It is either in the passive or middle voices. It is also in the perfect tense, something completed in the past,  so "having been prepared" or "having prepared itself."

for -- (CW)  This word "for" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context. Since the previous verses what either passive or the middle voice, this could also be "by."

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

devil  - The term translated as "the devil" is another adjective, that means "to slander." Introduced by an article ("the") it becomes a noun and means "the slanderer" and "the backbiter" as in "the one slandering."

and  -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.   This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "those"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

angels:​  - (UW) "Angels" is from a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT.

KJV Translation Issues: 

12
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "them" is not the common word usually translated as "them."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "on" is not the common word usually translated as "on."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb "depart" here is translated as active but it is passive.
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb "cursed" here is translated as active but it is passive.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "cursed" is the past tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have been cursed."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the one" before "everlasting" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "fire" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the one" before "prepared" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "for" may not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "those" before "angels" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "angels" means "messengers." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.

NIV Analysis: 

Then -- The Greek word for "then" means "at this time" or "then." With the subjective negative, the sense is "not when."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

say - "Say" is from means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming.

also -- The Greek word translated as "also" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

those --  The word translated as "them" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more.

on  -- (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." It is not the word translated as "on" but

his -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source.

left hand,  - The word for "the left hand" is also plural. It primarily means "of a good name," "honored," and similar positive things, and is only a euphemism for "left." It is not the normal Greek word for "left" which also means "sinister."

Depart  - (WF) The Greek verb translated as "depart" means "to lead over," "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to depart from life." Christ uses it to say "get away" with the "from me" that follows. It is in the form of a command, but in the form where the subject acts upon themselves, so "get yourselves away from me" is the complete sense here. This verb is passive or middle voice, so "be driven."

from  - The word translated as "from" means "from" in both a location and when referring to a source.

me,  - "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

you - This is from the vocative form of the noun that means it names the person being talked to.

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source.

are  -  (WT) This indicates that the "cursed" is in the present tense, but it is the past perfect.

cursed,  - (WV)"Cursed" is from an unusual word for Christ to use. It means "to call down curses upon." It is in the form of an adjective and in the form of one acting on themselves. It is either in the passive or middle voices. It is also in the perfect tense, something completed in the past,  so "having been cursed" or "having curse yourselves."

into  -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

missing "the one"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more.

eternal - "Eternal" is an adjective based on the word that means "age" or "eon." It has the sense of "perpetual" or "ageless." This actually follows the "fire."

missing "that"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

fire,  - "Fire" is a noun that means "fire," "sacrificial fire," "funeral fire," and so on, but Christ only uses this word to describe the fire of a trash dump. Jesus often uses it with the word that is translated as "hell" but which was the name of the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem.

missing "the one"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

prepared  - (WV, WT) "Prepared" is from a compound verb that means "to get ready," "to cause to be prepared," "to prepare oneself," and, in the form of an adjective used as a noun so "the one having prepared itself." It is either in the passive or middle voices. It is also in the perfect tense, something completed in the past,  so "having been prepared" or "having prepared itself."

for -- (CW)  This word "for" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context. Since the previous verses what either passive or the middle voice, this could also be "by."

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

devil  - The term translated as "the devil" is another adjective, that means "to slander." Introduced by an article ("the") it becomes a noun and means "the slanderer" and "the backbiter" as in "the one slandering."

and  -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.   This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "those"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

angels:​  - (UW)"Angels" is from a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT.

NIV Translation Issues: 

12
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "on" is not the common word usually translated as "on."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "his" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb "depart" here is translated as active but it is passive.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "are" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have been cursed."
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb "cursed" here is translated as active but it is passive.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the one" before "everlasting" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "fire" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the one" before "prepared" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "for" may not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "those" before "angels" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "angels" means "messengers." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.

Front Page Date: 

Nov 27 2021