Matthew 26:29 But I say unto you, I will not drink...

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

The Last Supper. This verse is said after Jesus gives wine to the apostles. 

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

I tell you, however, that I am may never drink from now out of this product of the vine until that day there when I drink with you a new one, in that kingdom of that Father of mine.

My Takeaway: 

Jesus cannot avoid wordplay even when saying goodbye.

KJV : 

Matthew 26:29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.

NIV : 

Matthew 26:29 I tell you, I will not drink from this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse has some hallmarks of Christ's humor, starting with the "I tell you" phrase. It also refers back to a couple of recent parables.

The phrase is "fruit of the vine" is used for a purpose. Jesus, of course, commonly uses the word "wine". This flowery phrase is not typical of his normal speech, but very typical of his humor, using exaggeration and complicated words for the sake of humor.

The term translated as "fruit" here means both "offspring" and "product." It is an uncommon word, used by Jesus only in five other verses. It has only been previously translated in the Gospel as "generation" in the phrase "generation of vipers," (Matthew 12:34, Matthew 23:33 but originally used by John the Baptist in Matthew 3:7) referring specifically, the Pharisees and perhaps meaning the "product of vipers," that is, poison." It is NOT the term Jesus commonly uses to refer to "fruit" as in "judging a tree by its fruit."

The word translated as "vine" is means "vine" and specifically "grape vine." This word only appears in this verses, its parallels in Luke, and Mark, and in John where Jesus describes himself as the vine.  Jesus has used a related term, "vineyard," which represented the realm of his Father in two recent parables, Matthew 20:1 (man hiring workers for his vineyard) and Matthew 21:33 (man building a vineyard and leasing it out). In the latter of these, another word for fruit was used to describe the product of the vines.

The Greek means "new", "fresh", "newly made", "newly invented," and "novel." It is also uncommon, used by Jesus only nine times. Here this adjective only matches the word translated as "fruit" above. It is acting as a noun so it should be translated as "a new one." This word could to the "new wine" (from Matthew 9:17) that requires new wineskins, perhaps a reference to his resurrected body.

Wordplay: 

The word for "fruit" means "product" and refers to offspring. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

λέγω [264 verses](1st sg pres ind act) "I tell" is from lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelt the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep." -

δὲ [446 verses](conj) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ὑμῖν [289 verses](pron 2nd pl dat) "Unto you" is from humin the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you."

οὐ μὴ [39 verses](partic) "Not" is from ou me, the two forms of Greek negative used together. Ou is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. Mê (me) is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

πίω , [36 verses](verb 1st sg aor subj act) "I shall drink" is from pino, which means "to drink", "to celebrate," and "soak up." -

ἀπ᾽ [190 verses]​(prep) Henceforth" is from apo, (with arti below) a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

ἄρτι [13 verses](adv) "Henceforth" is from arti, (with apo above) which means "just", "exactly," and "just now."

ἐκ [121 verses] (prep) "From" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

τούτου [51 verses](adj sg masc gen) "This" is toutou, which is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this," "here," "the nearer," and "the familiar."

τοῦ[821 verses](article sg neut gen)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

γενήματος [5 verses](noun sg neut gen) "Fruit" is from gennema, which means "that which born or produced," "offspring", "fruits" (of the earth), generally, any "product" or "work", "breeding", "begetting," and "producing."

τῆς [821 verses](article sg fem gen)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἀμπέλου [6 verses](noun sg fem gen) "Vine" is from ampelos, which means "any climbing plant with tendrils", "grape vine", "wild vine," and "vineyard."

ἕως [63 verses](conj)"Until" is from heos which means "until", "till," and "in order that" and "up to the point that."

τῆς [821 verses](article sg fem gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἡμέρας (noun sg fem gen) "Day" is from hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

ἐκείνης [107 verses](adj sg fem gen) "That" is ekeinos, which means "the person there", "that person", "that thing", "in that case", "in that way", "at that place," and "in that manner."

ὅταν [70 verses](conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)."

αὐτὸ [720 verses](adj sg neut acc) "It" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

πίνω [36 verses](verb 1st sg pres subj act) "I drink" is from pinô (pino), which means "to drink", "to celebrate," and "soak up." -- The word seems chosen for its double meaning. "To drink" also means "to celebrate."

μεθ᾽ [103 verses](prep) "With" is from meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to," and "next afterward."

ὑμῶν [168 verses](pron 2nd pl gen) "You" is from humon, the plural possessive form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you."

καινὸν , [9 verses](adj sg neut acc) "New" is kainos, which means "new", "fresh", "newly made", "newly invented," and "novel."

ἐν [413 verses](prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

τῇ[821 verses](article sg fem dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

βασιλείᾳ [98 verses](noun sg fem dat ) "The kingdom" is from basileia, which means "kingdom", "dominion", "hereditary monarchy", "kingly office," (passive) "being ruled by a king," and "reign."

τοῦ [821 verses](article sg masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

πατρός [191 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Father's" is from pater, which means "father", "grandfather", "author", "parent," and "forefathers."

μου. [239 verses](noun sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

KJV Analysis: 

But  - - The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

say  - The word translated as "I tell" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

unto -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

you, -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc. 

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

will  -- (WW) This helping verb "will" indicates the future tense, but the verb is not the future. It is, however, a subjunctive verb, one of possibility, which needs a "may" or "might" to translate into English when not in an "if/when" clause as below.

not  - - (CW) The "not" here is both of the Greek negatives used together. Greek has two negatives, one objective, one subjective. The use of both together is more extreme, like saying "you cannot really think" or "never."

drink  - The word translated as "drink" means "to drink" also means "to celebrate." Jesus often uses it where both meanings can apply. The form of this verb is not the future tense, but the subjunctive case, which when used with this form of negative is used either to make this possibility seem doubtful or certain. We see this same form in Luke 22:16.

henceforth  - "Henceforth" is from two Greek words that mean "from now." In English, we would say "from now on."

of  - (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

this  - The word translated as "this" means "from here" or "this/that thing."

fruit  - - (CW) The term used for "fruit" here means both "offspring" and "product." It has only been used previously translated in the Gospel as "generation" in the phrase "generation of vipers," (Matthew 12:34, Matthew 23:33 but originally used by John the Baptist in Matthew 3:7) referring specifically, the Pharisees and perhaps meaning the "product of vipers," that is, poison." It is NOT the term Christ commonly uses to refer to "fruit" as in "judging a tree by its fruit."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the  - -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

vine,  - The term translated as "vine" is means "vine" and specifically "grape vine".

until  - - The word translated as "until" means "until" but it also means "in order that."

that  - - The word translated as "that" is an adjective that highlights its noun as being in a specific place or time from a word that means "there."

day  -  - The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

when  - - The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

drink - The word translated as "drink" means "to drink" also means "to celebrate." Jesus often uses it where both meanings can apply.

it  - The word translated as "it" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English. 

new  - The Greek means "new", "fresh", "newly made", "newly invented," and "novel." Here its form only matches the word translated as "fruit" here.

with -  -- "With" is from the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It is not the term usually translated as "after."

you - -- The word translated as "you" is plural addressing a group of Jesus's listeners.

in  - - -- The word translated as "in" means "in," "within," "with" (an instrument), "during" (time),  or "among"  with a dative object as the one here.

my  -  - "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. 

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Father's  - "Father" is the common word that Christ uses to address his own Father, though it can mean any male ancestor. When referring to others, Christ uses it to refer to their ancestors, that is, "forefathers."

's  - - This word "'s"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

kingdom.  - - The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "realm" seems more appropriate. This is especially true because the "reign" of a king means the execution of his will.

KJV Translation Issues: 

6
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "will" should be "may."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "not" is both negatives together with the sense of "never."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "of" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "fruit" is not the common word usually translated as "fruit."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "father" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "k"ingdom is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

missing "however"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

Truly -- The word translated as "truly " is from the Hebrew word that means "truly" or "certainly," but it sounds like the Greek word with the same meaning. In Greek, the word also means "to reap." See this article discussing this "amen phrase."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

tell -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

you,  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc.

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

will  -- (WW) This helping verb "will" indicates the future tense, but the verb is not the future. It is, however, a subjunctive verb, one of possibility, which needs a "may" or "might" to translate into English when not in an "if/when" clause as below.

not  - - (CW) The "not" here is both of the Greek negatives used together. Greek has two negatives, one objective, one subjective. The use of both together is more extreme, like saying "you cannot really think" or "never."

drink  - The word translated as "drink" means "to drink" also means "to celebrate." Jesus often uses it where both meanings can apply. The form of this verb is not the future tense, but the subjunctive case, which when used with this form of negative is used either to make this possibility seem doubtful or certain. We see this same form in Luke 22:16.

from - The Greek preposition translated as "from" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

this  - The word translated as "this" means "from here" or "this/that thing."

fruit  - - (CW) The term used for "fruit" here means both "offspring" and "product." It has only been used previously translated in the Gospel as "generation" in the phrase "generation of vipers," (Matthew 12:34, Matthew 23:33 but originally used by John the Baptist in Matthew 3:7) referring specifically, the Pharisees and perhaps meaning the "product of vipers," that is, poison." It is NOT the term Christ commonly uses to refer to "fruit" as in "judging a tree by its fruit."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the  - -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

vine,  - The term translated as "vine" is means "vine" and specifically "grape vine".

from  - The word translated as "from" means "from" in both locations and when referring to a source or a cause.

now on -- The Greek word translated as "now on" means "just" or "exactly and "now" in the sense of "just now" when applied to time. Jesus usually seems to use it in the sense of "now."

until  - - The word translated as "until" means "until" but it also means "in order that."

that  - - The word translated as "that" is an adjective that highlights its noun as being in a specific place or time from a word that means "there."

day  -  - The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

when  - - The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

drink - The word translated as "drink" means "to drink" also means "to celebrate." Jesus often uses it where both meanings can apply.

it  - The word translated as "it" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English. 

new  - The Greek means "new", "fresh", "newly made", "newly invented," and "novel." Here its form only matches the word translated as "fruit" here.

with -  -- "With" is from the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It is not the term usually translated as "after."

you - -- The word translated as "you" is plural addressing a group of Jesus's listeners.

in  - - -- The word translated as "in" means "in," "within," "with" (an instrument), "during" (time),  or "among"  with a dative object as the one here.

my  -  - "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Father's  - "Father" is the common word that Christ uses to address his own Father, though it can mean any male ancestor. When referring to others, Christ uses it to refer to their ancestors, that is, "forefathers."

's  - - This word "'s"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

kingdom.  - - The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "realm" seems more appropriate. This is especially true because the "reign" of a king means the execution of his will.

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "however" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "will" should be "may."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "not" is both negatives together with the sense of "never."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "fruit" is not the common word usually translated as "fruit."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "father" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "k"ingdom is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Dec 16 2021