Mark 4:6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched;

Spoken to: 

audience

The parable of the seeds, this is the seeding on the rocky ground.

KJV : 

Mark 4:6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away.

NIV : 

Mark 4:6 But when the sun came up, the plants were scorched, and they withered because they had no root.

Listeners Heard: 

And, when the sun rose up, it was scorched also because of this not having a root, it is withered.

My Takeaway: 

Increasing the light of knowledge creates the heat of change.

Lost in Translation: 

English bible translators are perverse. This verse starts with the preposition usually translated as "and", but it is translated as "but." While its parallel in Matthew 13:6 starts with the conjunction usually translated as "but," but it is translated as "and." Obviously, the context is identical.

The subject of the scorching and withering here is singular, the "it" of "the seeding" from the previous verse.

The word translated as "was up" and "came up" means "rose up." This is important because the plant couldn't have "sprang up," (from the previous verse,  a verb from the same root as "rose up") if it didn't have any light. It is the height of the sun that causes the heat.

The root meaning of the verb translated as "scorched" means simply "heat," which Jesus always uses to show some form of transformation. Here the transformation is being withered. The "withered" is passive, thought it is not translated that way. This is important because it is something being done to the seeding by the heat.

Original Word Order: 

καὶ ὅτε        ἀνέτειλεν      ἥλιος
And, when  up rose it, the sun,

ἐκαυματίσθη     καὶ  διὰ             τὸ   μὴ   ἔχειν      ῥίζαν       ἐξηράνθη.
it was scorched also because of this not having a root, it is withered.

WORD-BY-WORD COMPARISON OF THE GREEK TO ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS: 

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ὅτε [19 verses](adv/conj) "When" is hote, which means "when," "as when," "at the time when," and "sometimes."

ἀνέτειλεν [5 verses](verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Was up" is anatellô, which means "to rise," "to make rise up," "to give birth," "to gush forth [water]," "to bring forth," "to spring up [plants]," "rise [mountains]," and "to appear above the horizon [sun,moon]."

[821 verses](article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἥλιος [8 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Sun" is helios, which means the "sun," "life," "day," "sunshine," "the sun's heat," "brightness," and the sun-god.

ἐκαυματίσθη [2 verses](verb 3rd sg aor ind pass) "It was scorched" is kaumatizô, which means "to burn," "to suffer from the heat," "to heat," and, in the passive, "to be heated," "to be burnt up." 

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

διὰ  [88 verses](prep) "Because" is dia, which means with the genitive "through," "in the midst of," "in a line (movement)," "throughout (time)," "by (causal)," "for (causal)," "among," and "between." With the accusative, it can also be "thanks to," "because of,"  "by reasons of," and "for the sake of."

τὸ [821 verses](article sg neut acc)  "It" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

μὴ [447 verses](partic) "No" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. With pres. or aor. subj. used in a warning or statement of fear, "take care" It can be the conjunction "lest" or "for fear that." Used before tis with an imperative to express a will or wish for something in independent sentences and, with subjunctives, to express prohibitions.

ἔχειν [181 verses](verb pres inf act) "Had" is echo, which means "to have," "to hold," "to possess," "to keep," "to have charge of," "to have due to one," "to maintain," "to hold fast," "to hold in," "to bear," "to carry," "to keep close," "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." In aorist, it can mean "acquire," or "get." The main sense when it has an object is "to have" or "to hold." It can also mean "to without" or "keep back" a thing. 

ῥίζαν [5 verses](noun sg fem acc) "Root" is rhiza, which means "root" and anything that springs from a root. It includes the roots of hairs, feathers, and teeth. It is also a metaphor for roots as a foundation, such as "the roots of the earth."

ἐξηράνθη. [4 verses]( 3rd sg aor ind pass) "It withered away" is from xêrainô, which means "to become dry," "to become parched," and "to wither away." It is from the adjective,  xeros-, which means "dry" or "withered."

KJV Analysis: 

But -- (WW) The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

when  - "When" is from an adverb/conjunction that means "when," "as when," "at the time when," and "sometimes."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article; without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

sun -- The Greek word for "sun," also means "sunshine" and, more generally, "brightness." Brightness is Christ's metaphor for intelligence. Light is his metaphor for knowledge.

was -- (WW) The Greek verb translated as "was up" means "to rise," "to make rise up," "to give birth," "to gush forth [water]," "to bring forth," "to spring up [plants]," "rise [mountains]," and "to appear above the horizon [sun, moon]." This verb was the root of the verb in Mark 4:5 translated as "sprang up."

up, - This completes the meaning of the verb. It is from the prefix.

it -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

was -- This helping verb "was" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

scorched; - "Scorched" is a verb that, in the passive, means "to be heated" or "to be burnt up."

and  - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

because -- --  The preposition translated as "for...reason" means with the accusative used here, means "thanks to," "because of,"  "by reasons of," and "for the sake of."

it -- -(WW) - The word translated as "it" is the Greek definite article, "the." Without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

had  -- (WF) The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "hold in," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as the helper verb does in English. Nor does it has the sense of "must" when used with infinitives. The verb is singular and it is not an active verb. It is in the form of an infinitive, "to have." However, it is preceded by an article, making it a verbal noun describing the action. In English, this is the gerund, "the having," with the negative below, "the not having."

no -- (WP) The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" or "think" something, not that it isn't done or thought. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. It is before the verbal noun here, "having," not root. It is subjective because it explains a cause.

root, -- "Root" is from the Greek word for a plant's "root" and anything that springs from a root. It includes the roots of hairs, feathers, and teeth. It is also a metaphor for roots as a foundation, such as "the roots of the earth."

it -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

withered  - (WV) "Withered" is a verb that means "to become dry," "to become parched," and "to wither away." This verb is singular and passive so, "it was withered. "

away. -- - This completes the meaning of the verb.

KJV Translation Issues: 

6
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "but" should be something more like "and."
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "was" should be something more like "rose."
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "it" should be something more like "the."
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  The "had" is not an active verb but a verbal noun, "having."
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "no" doesn't appear here but before the verbal noun "having."
  • WV --Wrong Voice - The verb here is translated as passive but it is active.

NIV Analysis: 

But -- (WW) The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

when  - "When" is from an adverb/conjunction that means "when," "as when," "at the time when," and "sometimes."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article; without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

sun -- The Greek word for "sun," also means "sunshine" and, more generally, "brightness." Brightness is Christ's metaphor for intelligence. Light is his metaphor for knowledge.

came -- (WW) The Greek verb translated as "came up" means "to rise," "to make rise up," "to give birth," "to gush forth [water]," "to bring forth," "to spring up [plants]," "rise [mountains]," and "to appear above the horizon [sun, moon]." This verb was the root of the verb in Mark 4:5 translated as "sprang up."

up, - This completes the meaning of the verb. It is from the prefix.

the plants -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "the plants " in the Greek source.

were -- (WN) This helping verb "were " indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This word is not plural but singular

scorched; - "Scorched" is a verb that, in the passive, means "to be heated" or "to be burnt up."

and  - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

they ---- (WN) This word is not plural but singular.  This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

withered - (WV) "Withered" is a verb that means "to become dry," "to become parched," and "to wither away." This verb is singular and passive so, "it was withered. "

because -- --  The preposition translated as "for...reason" means with the accusative used here, means "thanks to," "because of,"  "by reasons of," and "for the sake of."

they  -- (WW, WN) - The word translated as "they " is the Greek definite article, "the." Without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

had  -- (WF) The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "hold in," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as the helper verb does in English. Nor does it has the sense of "must" when used with infinitives. The verb is singular and it is not an active verb. It is in the form of an infinitive, "to have." However, it is preceded by an article, making it a verbal noun describing the action. In English, this is the gerund, "the having," with the negative below, "the not having."

no -- (WP) The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" or "think" something, not that it isn't done or thought. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. It is before the verbal noun here, "having," not root. It is subjective because it explains a cause.

root, -- "Root" is from the Greek word for a plant's "root" and anything that springs from a root. It includes the roots of hairs, feathers, and teeth. It is also a metaphor for roots as a foundation, such as "the roots of the earth."

NIV Translation Issues: 

10
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "but" should be something more like "and."
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "came" should be something more like "rose."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "the plants" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WN  --Wrong Number- The word "were" is translated as plural but the Greek word is singular.
  • WN  --Wrong Number- The word "they" is translated as plural but the Greek word is singular.
  • WV --Wrong Voice - The verb here is translated as passive but it is active.
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "they" should be something more like "the."
  • WN  --Wrong Number- The word "they" is translated as plural but the Greek word is singular.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  The "had" is not an active verb but a verbal noun, "having."
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "no" doesn't appear here but before the verbal noun "having."

Related Verses: 

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Heat is Jesus's symbol for transformation, while light is his symbol for knowledge and growth.

Front Page Date: 

Mar 11 2023