Mark 9:31 The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men...

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

The son of the man is giving himself over into the hands of men and they are going to destroy him and being destroyed within three days he is going to raise himself up. 

KJV : 

Mark 9:31 The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and after that he is killed, he shall rise the third day.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural. "Kill" and "after they kill" are from two different forms of the same word, a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because the base word means "slay."  The Greek says "after three days" not "after that...the third day."

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

(article sg masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

υἱὸς (noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

 τοῦ (article sg masc gen) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἀνθρώπου  (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

παραδίδοται (verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Is delivered" is paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

εἰς (prep) "Hands" is from cheir, which means "the hand and arm," and "with the help of agency of another." Like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful."

χεῖρας (noun pl fem acc) "Hands" is from cheir, which means "the hand and arm," and "with the help of agency of another." Like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful."

ἀνθρώπων, (noun pl masc gen) "Of men" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀποκτενοῦσιν (verb 3rd pl fut ind act)  "They shall kill" is apokteinô, which is a stronger form of kteinô, which means "to slay." It means to "condemn to death" and "put to death."

αὐτόν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

καὶ  (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀποκτανθεὶς (part sg aor pass masc nom) "After he is killed" is is apokteinô, which is a stronger form of kteinô, which means "to slay." It means to "condemn to death" and "put to death."

μετὰ (prep) Untranslated is meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to," and "next afterward."

τρεῖς (adj pl fem acc) "Third" is from treis, which means the number three. --

ἡμέρας (noun pl fem acc) "Days" is from hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)." --

ἀναστήσεται. (verb 3rd sg fut ind mid causal) "Rise up" is from anistemi, which means "to make stand up", "to raise up", "to raise from sleep", "to wake up", "to raise from the dead", "to rouse to action", "to put up for sale", "to make people rise", "to emigrate", "to transplant," and "to rise and leave the sanctuary."

KJV Analysis: 

The -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "children". It can refer to all offspring in later generations, just like "father" refers to all previous generations. Jesus also used it metaphorically to describe those who follow a way of thought or set of beliefs that descend from an individual. More about it in this article.

of -- This comes from the form of following noun.

Untranslated -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man -- The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

is -- This is from the passive form of the following verb.

delivered -- "Delivered" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is often translated in the KJV as "betray" but it has no real sense of that.  The verb form is either passive of the subject acting on himself. So "is delivered" or "delivers himself."

into -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- There is no article in the Greek, but in English we use articles with plurals more often than not.

hands -- The Greek word translated as "hands" means "the hand and forearm". It can mean both the idea of a helping hand and being in someone's control. 

of -- This comes from the form of the following noun.

men, -- The Greek word for "men" also means "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, as it is here, it means "people" and "peoples".

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

they -- This is from the plural, third-person form of the verb.

shall -- This from future tense of the following verb.

kill -- "Kill" is from a verb that has the sense of "kill off," that is, destroy in a more thorough way. When we talk about "destroying" someone, we use it to mean destroying their reputation, the strength of their spirit and ideas as well as physically killing them. This is more the sense here.

him; -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

after -- This word doesn't exist in the Greek. It is perhaps from the form of the verb, which is not an active verb, but a verbal adjective, "being killed."

that -- There is no "that" in the Greek.

he -- This word is from the third-person, singular, masculine form of the verb.

is -- This is from the passive form of the verb.

killed, -- "Killed" is from a verb that has the sense of "kill off," that is, destroy in a more thorough way. It is the same verb as above, but in the form of an passive adjective, "being destroyed."

he  -- This is from the third-person, singular, masculine form of the verb.

shall -- This is from the future tense of the verb.

rise -- The Greek word translated as "rise" means "to make stand up". It is a different word than a more common word translated as "shall be raised" in other versions of this verse. This idea is usually passive, Jesus being raised, but here, he makes himself rise. 

untranslated -- Untranslated is the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It is not the term usually translated as "after."

the -- There is no "the" in the Greek source.

third -- "Third" is from the Greek word that means the number three.

day. -- The Greek word translated as "days" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Why does this verse follow directly on the previous verse about the nature of spirit and unclean spirits? Perhaps because in discussing the nature of spirit, Christ is reminding of his own death, the survival of his spirit, and its reanimation of his body. This reflects directly have to the transfiguration that began this chapter.

Front Page Date: 

Sep 12 2019