Jhn 14:27 Peace I leave with you, my peace I give to you: not as the world gives, give I to you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.
A time of peace I let go to you.
My tranquility I hand over to you.
[But] not how a worldly power grants [it].
I appoint you [as priests].
Do not let your feelings bother you.
Do not be afraid.
Explanation of Greek:
In this alternative, I have highlighted the different shades of meaning of the words used. The word translated as "leave" (aphiemi), I offer as "let go," which is closer to its primary meaning in Greek. The word translated as "give," I have offered as "hand over", "grant," and "appoint [as a priest]" because those are all other meanings of the word, whose primary meaning is "to give."
However, this verse is more about the meaning of "peace."
We tend to think of this verse as referring to peace as the feeling of harmony or tranquility. However, the word primarily means a period or time of peace. This time was, after all, the Pax Romana, a period of peace made possible by the Roman empire. This Pax is the peace granted by worldly power. A peace that led, among other things, to the destruction of Israel. this is the peace of power.
However, the period of peace that Christ is giving us comes from a different philosophy, his peace. He makes this clear in this verse. He is ushering in a new world order that we today have the pleasure of enjoying. This high-trust world where people work together because they care about one another started with Christ. Every year since Christ's death, the level of violence in the world has declined as influenced by this philosophy.
This brings us to last meaning of give. Notice that the last phrase has no "peace" in it. It is simply "I give you." We can assume the "peace," but we can also use another meaning of give. It means "appoint" or "establish" when referring to making priests. That meaning seems to work here.
With this line, Christ could have been appointing the appointing the apostles as priest of peace.
The last line is a duplicate of
. It is discussed here.
Both aphiemi and didomi can mean "to hand over."
Εἰρήνην "Peace" is eirênê (eirene), which means "time of peace", "peace", "tranquility," and "harmony." It is the name for the goddess of peace. In Hebrew, the word for peace was used in salutations and as an inquiry as to one's health.
ἀφίημι (1st sg pres ind act) "Will not leave you" is from aphiêmi (aphiemi), which means "to let fall", "to send away", "give up", "hand over", "to let loose", "to get rid of", "to leave alone", "to pass by", "to permit," and "to send forth from oneself." This same word is usually translated as "leave", "forgive", "suffer," and "let" in the New Testament.
"Not" is from οὐ ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, class="greek">μή applies to will and thought; class="greek">οὐdenies, class="greek">μή rejects; class="greek">οὐ is absolute, class="greek">μή relative; class="greek">οὐ objective, class="greek">μή subjective.
κόσμος "World" is from kosmos, which mean "order", "good order", "ruler", "world order", "universe," and "the world of men." Matthew uses it when Christ is talking about the order in the universe, specifically the order of the world of men, as it is designed to be.
Μὴ "Not" is from mê (me), which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As class="greek">οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; class="greek">μή rejects, class="greek">οὐ denies; class="greek">μή is relative, class="greek">οὐ absolute; class="greek">μή subjective, class="greek">οὐobjective.