Common Translation Issues

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word

-- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

-- (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

ISSUES

WF - Wrong Form -  The "left" is not an active verb but a participle, "leaving."

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "lo" means "look."

MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "lo" means "look."

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "he" doesn't exist in the source.

IP - Inserted phrase-- The phrase "for them" doesn't exist in the source.

WM  - Wrong Mood  - The verb "believe" is translated as a command, but the Greek word is not a command.

WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.

WN  - Wrong Number- The word "believe" is translated as plural but it is singular.

OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "behold" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.

CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense.

MM -- Many Meanings -- This word has several different meanings that work here and is a form of wordplay.

UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "synagogues" means "meeting." It is the untranslated Greek word adapted to English.

PRONOUNS

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the following verb.

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the following verb.

things -- Though the subject is plural, the verb is singular because neutral plural verbs are treated as a collective.

he -- The subject of the clause in Greek is in the form of an object because the verb in the clause is an infinitive.

him -- This English objective pronoun is added while not in the Greek source.   In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

him -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

HELPING VERBS

do -- This helping verb is added to make this a question, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

is -- This helping verb is added to make this a question, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense or a form that indicates possibility at some time. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

may-- This helping verb "may" indicates that the following verb indicates a possibility. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the following verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" phrase. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

have -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the following verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past.

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the following verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here.

untranslated "has" -- (MW) The following verb is the tense of an action competed in the past. In requires that a helping verb "has" or "have" to indicate that tense as a helping verb before it in English.

untranslated "might" (MW) The following verb is in the form that indicates something is possible. In requires that a helping verb "might" or "should" to the possibility intended in English.

had -- This helping verb "had" indicates that the following verb is the past tense, but the verb is not the past but a form that indicates a specific point in time, past, present, or future.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the following verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

should -- This helping verb in English comes from the form of the following Greek verb that indicates a possibility. We would usually say "might" or "should" in English.

left -- (WF)  The form of the word is not an active verb ut a participle, a verb in the form of an adjective, "leaving."

be -- (WW) This helping verb "be" seems to indicate that the following verb is passive but it isn't. It is a verb from that indicates the subject is acting on itself.  Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

let -- This "let" is the helping verb used to translated the Greek form of the third-person command. In English all commands are in the second-person. This form is used something like our word "must."

untranslated "for"  -- (MW) The verb is the Greek middle voice that indicates that subjects act "for" or "on" themselves.  Some English transitive verbs require a reflexive pronoun ("itself", "themselves" etc.) after the verb to capture this meaning.

know -- (HW) The word translated as "know" means primarily "to see" and is used to mean "know' as we use the phrase "I see" to mean "I know" in English. However, though "know" works, not using it primary meaning hides the wordplay with the different word meaning "see" that starts the verse.

VERB PREFIXES

from -- This is from the prefix that means "from"of the previous verb.

after -- (WW) This prep/adverb is from the verb's prefix but the prefix means "from" not "after."

ARTICLES

(article)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the following noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

ADDED WORDS

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the following verb requires a "to" in English.

him -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

things -- This "things"  is from the plural, neutral form of the previous adjective.

man -- This "man" is from the masculine, singular form of the previous words.

and -- These is no "and" here. It is added because the previous verb was  changed from an adjective to an active verb in translation. 

to be -- There is no verb "to be" here in the Greek. However, when noun and pronouns appear in the form of a subject without a verb, the verb "to be" is assumed.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

ISSUES

be -- (WW) This helping verb "be" seems to indicate that the following verb is passive but it isn't. It is a verb from that indicates the subject is acting on itself.  Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

-- (OS) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "also" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

-- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the following verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here.

will  -- (WT) This helping verb "will" indicates the future tense, but the verb is not the future.

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the following verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" phrase. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

left -- (WF)  The form of the word is not an active verb ut a participle, a verb in the form of an adjective, "leaving."

-- (WN) The " " should be a plural but it is singular.

-- (MM)

-- (UW)

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

-- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

-- (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

ISSUES

WF - Wrong Form -  The "left" is not an active verb but a participle, "leaving."

CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense.

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "lo" means "look."

MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.

MM -- Many Meanings -- This word has several different meanings that work here and is a form of wordplay.

UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "christos" means "anointed." It is not translated but a title is substituted.

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "lo" means "look."

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "he" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

IP - Inserted phrase-- The phrase "for them" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WM  - Wrong Mood  - The verb "believe" is translated as a command, but the Greek word is not a command.

WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.

WN  - Wrong Number- The word "believe" is translated as plural but it is singular.

OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "behold existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.

Dative Case

The dative case has several uses in ancient Greek 1) the indirect object of an action ("Matthew gave his Gospel...to all.") 2) the instrumental dative ("Matthew wrote...with a pen.") 3) the location (in time or place) dative (...in Judea.") 4) to declare a purpose (]..as a testimony"), 5) a benefit ( "...for our benefit"); 6) possession ("...of his own") 7) an agent ("...by himself") and 8) a comparison ("...as the longest") 9) area of affect ("in the sphere of men") -- The form of this word requires that addition of a preposition in English to capture its meaning, a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, and an "in" for area of affect.

Genitive Case

The genitive is always used with some prepositions and verbs, but it is also used for many other things including 1) the attribute genitive (functioning as an adjective), 2) the possessive genitive ("belonging to"), 3) the partitive genitive ("which is part of"), 4) the apposition genitive (same thing as head noun, i.e. "which is"), 5) the descriptive genitive ("described by'), 6) the genitive of comparison ("than" when used with "more", "less," etc.), 7) subjective genitive ("or") with participle ("coming of the son" becomes "the son comes" , 8) objective (‘for’, ‘about’, ‘concerning’, ‘toward’ or ‘against’) only with transitive noun ("blasphemy of the spirit" to "blasphemy against the spirit"), 9) absolute: a participle and noun at the beginning of a sentence ("while") 8) of time ("during", "within") of a word indicating time. -- The form of this word requires that addition of extra words in English to capture its meaning.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

The Middle and Passive

The Middle voice indicates that someone is acting on themselves or for their own benefit. "He washed himself."

The Middle Passive voice is a verb form that can be either the middle voice or a passive voice. In transitive verbs, it acts as a passive: "he is washed" but for non-transitive verbs, it is acts as the middle voice "he rested for his benefit" or "he rested himself".

  1. Reflexive: "I wash (myself)". This reflexive sense could also carry a sense of benefaction for the subject, as in the sentence "I sacrificed a goat (for my own benefit)."
  2. Reciprocal: "to fight" (with active) vs. "to fight each other" (with mp).
  3. Autocausative: describes situations where the subject causes itself to change state.
  4. State of Being. With verbs relating to standing, sitting, reclining, being afraid, being ashamed, and being pleased, etc.
  5. Intensive: "to be a citizen" (with active) vs. "to do the duties of being a citizen" (with middle).
  6. In deponent verbs that have not active form, for example, "to follow".
  7. Combined with the subjunctive to form the future tense of the verb "to be" in Classical Greek.

Optative Mood

Expresses as wish "If only..." or "Would that..." or a potential of future possibility "I would be happy to dine with you." Largely died out in the koine, but survives in some phrases.

If/Then Statements (Conditional Sentences)

General Conditionals ('if anytime X, then always Y) Repetitive nature

  • Present general ("'If it rains, the streets get wet.'")  IF: eãn + subj. THEN: present indicative
  • Past general ('If  he commanded, they would always act") IF: ei + opt. THEN: imperfect indicative (sometimes with ên)

Specific Conditional ('if X happens, then Y')

  • Neutral ('If X is indeed true, then Y.') IF: ei + any indicative THEN: any indicative
  • Contrary-to-fact ('If pigs had wings, they could fly.') IF: ei + indicative II THEN: indicative II + an
  • Future Probable ('If I find out, I'll let you know.') IF: eãn + subj. THEN:  future indicative/imperative/other 
  • Future Possible ('Should X happen, then Y would.') IF: ei + opt. THEN: optative + an