Luke 13:16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 13:16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

This one, however, a daughter of Abraham, she is, whom he has fettered, the adversary. Look! Ten and eight years! Isn't it necessary to be released from the fetter, this one, on the day of the Sabbath. 

Hidden Meaning: 

This verse is rearranged from the Greek. The Greek is something you might say, first pointing out the woman, then describing her situation. However, the description of being released from the fetters doesn't only describe the woman. It is a general statement about the binds on the Sabbath. There is one unique word here that Jesus uses nowhere else. 

The Greek word translated as "and" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The Greek verb translated as "ought" is a special verb that means  "it is needful," and "there is a need." It is always singular referring to a specific moment in the past, present, or future. It works something like our word "must" but its form is fixed and impersonal. So there is no "you" in this verb, just necessity itself. It appears at the end of the Greek verse, not the beginning. 

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

The "this woman" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. It is in the female form so the "woman" is added though the actual word does not appear here. 

The verb "being" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It is not a participle, "beings", but an active verb, "she is". 

The word translated as "daughter" means any female descendant and was used to address female servants and slaves. 

"Of Abraham" is the Hebrew name "Abraham" in Greek letters. It doesn't have a Greek possessive ending. 

The word translated as "whom" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

"Satan" is from an Aramaic word meaning "adversary" or "opponent". This is the closest Jesus comes to using it to refer to the OT "Lucifer".  See this article on the word and this article on this word and related terms. It always appears with the article, so "the adversary". 

"Hath bound" is an adjective form for a verb that means "to bind", "to keep in bonds", "to tie", "to hinder from," and "to fetter. " It is a past participle in a form that indicates something acting on itself so "has been tied itself." The sense is not that the ass was tied up by someone, but rather that it has tangled itself up in something.

"Lo" is an adverb meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!" In a humorous vein, this about how Christ uses this like we use the phrase "tah-dah" in a magic show, or "voila" in French. "Look!" or "See!" comes closest in English.

There is no "these" referring to the years.

"Eighteen" is literally "ten and eight" in the Greek. 

"Years" is from a Greek word that means "year", "yearly", and "annually". It is also an uncommon word, used primarily by Luke. The other Gospels use a more common word for year. 

The word translated as "be loosened" means to "unbind"and means "to annul" a law. It is the same word Christ uses to refer to "breaking" commandments. It is in the form  of "to be loosened."  This form directly follows the "it is necessary" (translated as "ought"). It is in a form that isn't personal, that is, applying only to the woman. It is a general statement about the need for annulling the "law" on the Sabbath. 

The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

"This" is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this", "here", "the nearer," and "the familiar." This word is after bond, but it is not clear that the bond refers to her disability or the bond that his opponents try to put on Jesus preventing him from curing on the Sabbath. 

The Greek word translated as "bond" means "band", "bond", "anything for tying and fastening",  "connection", "imprisonment", "spell" and "charm". 

The word translated as the "the Sabbath " is the Greek version of the Hebrew word "shabbat" meaning "rest" or "day of rest".  

The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

 

 

Wordplay: 

The statement points out the woman and her situation before making a more general statement about nullifying the law of the Sabbath. 

Vocabulary: 

ταύτην (adj sg fem acc) "This" is tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these", "this", "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. 

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). --

θυγατέρα (noun sg fem acc) "Daughter" is the Greek, thygater, which is generally a female descendant, "maidservant", "female slave," and "villages dependent on a city." 

Ἀβραὰμ (Hebrew name) "Abraham" is Abraam, which is the Greek form of "Abraham."

οὖσαν, (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Being" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." 

ἣν (pron sg fem acc) "Whom" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings. 

ἔδησεν (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Hath bound" is deo which means "to bind", "to keep in bonds", "to tie", "to hinder from," and "to fetter. " --

Σατανᾶς (noun sg masc nom) "Satan" is satanas which is an Aramaic word meaning "adversary", "opponents," or "one who opposes another in purpose or act. "

ἰδοὺ (verb 2nd sg aor imperat mid ) "Behold is idou, which means "to behold", "to see," and "to perceive." It acts as an adverbial phrase in this form meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!' It is a form of the verb eido, which means "to see." 

δέκα  (numeral) "Ten" is from deka, which means the number ten.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

ὀκτὼ [uncommon] (numeral) "Eight" is from okto, which means the number "eight". 

ἔτη, [uncommon] (noun pl neut acc) "Years" is from etos, which means "year", "yearly", and "annually". 

οὐκ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective. 

ἔδει (verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "Ought" is from, dei, which means "needful," and "there is need."

λυθῆναι (verb aor inf pass) "Be loosened" is lyo, (luo) which means "loosen", "unbind", "unfasten", "unyoke", "unharness", "release", "deliver", "give up", "dissolve", "break up", "undo", "destroy", "repeal", "annul", "break", "solve", "fulfill", "atone for", "fulfill," and "pay."

ἀπὸ (prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause. --

τοῦ δεσμοῦ [unique] (noun sg masc gen) "Bond" is desmos, which means "band", "bond", "anything for tying and fastening",  "connection", "imprisonment", "spell" and "charm". 

τούτου (adj sg masc gen) "This" is toutou, which is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this", "here", "the nearer," and "the familiar." -- 

τῇ ἡμέρᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "Day" is hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)." 

τοῦ σαββάτου; (noun sg masc gen)  "Sabbath " is from sabbaton, which means "Sabbath", "seven days of week," and "first day of week." 

May 25 2018