Luke 15:4 What man of you, having an hundred sheep,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 15:4  What man of you, having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it?

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Any man out of you having a hundred sheep and losing out of them one. Doesn't he abandon the ninety-nine in the desert and go away upon the one lost until he might discover it. 

Hidden Meaning: 

When comparing this version to the one in Matthew 18:12,  we notice the change of scenery from a mountain to a desert. He also makes the story stronger by using more negative words so this is perhaps a later verse. 

The word translated as "what" means primarily means "anything" or "anyone," but Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who", "what", or even "why". 

The Greek word for "man" also means "person" and "humanity" in the singular. 

The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

The word translated as "you" is plural addressing a group of Jesus's listeners.

The word translated as "having" means "to possess" or "to keep". It is in the form of an adjective, so "having". 

"An hundred" is from the Greek number "a hundred."

"Sheep" is from the Greek word refers to any domesticated animal. Jesus always uses sheep to symbolize his followers and to describe his relationship and feelings for his followers. While "sheep" has a negative connotation, in Jesus's era they were a form of wealth as productive animals. Since "sheep" included "rams", they weren't the passive creatures we think of them as today. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

The word translated as "he lose" means to destroy or demolish, but also "to lose". It is a much more negative word than the "gone astray" in Matthew 18:12.

The Greek word translated as "one " means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same."

The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

 The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

"Doth he...leave" is from a verb that means "to be left", "left behind", "forsake", "abandon", "leave," and "remaining." It is not the verb that is used in the Gospels to mean "leave" in the sense of leaving a place." It is in the future tense.

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

The "ninty-nine" are the Greek numerals "ninty" and "nine". These are uncommon. 

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

"The wilderness" is from an adjective meaning "desolate", "lonely," and "solitary." It has the sense of the English phrase "the middle of nowhere" or simple "desert."  In Matthew, the place is the mountains. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

 The Greek verb translated as "go" means "to lead over", "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to depart from life." Christ uses it to say "get away" when followed by "from me." It isn't the most common verb translated as "go" in the NT but it is often translated that way. This word means "to lead over", "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to pursue a course" and "to depart from life." Since it is in a form that acts on itself, the sense is "take yourselves". 

The word translated as "after" means "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

The verb translated as "That which he lost" means to destroy or demolish primarily, but it also means "lost" though often in the sense of losing a life.  It is a verb in the form of an adjective, "lost", but use as a noun, "the one lost". 

The word translated as "until" means "until" but it also means "in order that."

The term used for "he find" is the source of our word, "heuristic," meaning enabling a person to find out something for themselves. It means "find out" and "discover." The "he" comes from the active form. 

The word translated as "it" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

Vocabulary: 

Τίς (pron sg fem nom) "What" is tis which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "they [indefinite]", "many a one", "whoever", "anyone", "anything", "some sort", "some sort of", "each", "any", "the individual", "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what." 

ἄνθρωπος (noun sg masc nom) "Man" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἐξ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from." 

ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) "You" is humon, the plural possessive form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -

ἔχων (part sg pres act masc nom) "Having" is echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to carry", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do."

ἑκατὸν [uncommon] (numeral ) "An hundred" is from hekaton, which is the number "a hundred."

πρόβατα (noun pl neut acc) "Sheep" is probaton, which means any domesticated four-footed animal, "sheep", "cattle", "herds," and "flocks. -- "Sheep" is Christ's symbol for his followers. The Greek word refers to any domesticated animal and works better if translated simple as "flock" or "herd." The flock follows the shepherd, which is above them. It is also together, a united group.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

ἀπολέσας (part sg aor act masc nom) "He lose" is apollymi, which means "to demolish", "to lay waste", "to lose", "to perish", "to die", "to cease to exist," and "to be undone."

ἐξ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

αὐτῶν (adj pl neut gen) "Them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

ἓν (noun sg neut acc) "One" is heis, which means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same." --

οὐ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

καταλείπει (verb 2nd/3rd sg pres ind act) "Doth he ....leave" is from kataleipo, which means "to be left", "left behind", "forsake", "abandon", "leave," and "remaining."

τὰ (article pl neut acc)  ἐνενήκοντα [uncommon] (numeral) "The ninty " is from enenekonta that is the Greek number ninty The article preceding it makes it a noun and the object of the verb.

ἐννέα  [uncommon](numeral) "Nine" is ennea, the number "nine".

 ἐν (prep) "Into" is from epi. which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," and "against."

τῇ ἐρήμῳ (adj sg neut dat) "The wilderness" is from eremos, which is an adjective (used as a noun) that means "desolate", "lonely", "solitary", "reft of", "destitute of", "bereft of", "unclaimed", "vacant," [of places] "deserted," [of people] "friendless," and "not gregarious."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

πορεύεται (verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Go" is poreuomai (poreuô) which means "make to go", "carry", "convey", "bring", "go", "march," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT. --

ἐπὶ (prep) "After" is epi, which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "after", "across," "during", and "against." --

τὸ ἀπολωλὸς (part sg perf act neut acc) "That which he lost" is apollymi, which means "to demolish", "to lay waste", "to lose", "to perish", "to die", "to cease to exist," and "to be undone." -- The word translated as "perish" means to destroy or demolish.

ἕως (conj) "Until" is heos which means "until", "till," and "in order that" and "up to the point that." --

εὕρῃ (verb 3rd sg aor subj ) "He find" is heurisko, which means "to find", "to find out", "to discover", "to devise", "to invent", "to get," and "to gain." --

αὐτό; (adj sg neut acc) "It" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

Related Verses: 

Jul 9 2018