Luke 11:39 Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; b

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

No, you yourselves, the Separated, the outside of the drinking cup and serving board you clean. The, however, inside of you? It is full of greediness and 

KJV : 

Luke 11:39 Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The English translation makes this seem more like the Matthew version (Matthew 23:25), but Jesus is very specific here in referring to the "inside of you" rather than the insides of the cup. This is lost in translation.

The Greek word translated as "now" \means "now", "at the present moment","presently," and "as it is."

The pronoun "you" is used explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since it is already part of the verb, its use here creates emphasis on the "you" as we might say "you yourselves." It is plural.

Pharisees" is an example of where we use the Greek word as the name of the religious sect, instead of translating it. In Greek, the word means the "separatists" or "the judgmental," but it is a Hebrew word meaning "distinguished" or "elite." It is introduced with an article, so "the separated". 

The Greek word translated as "make clean," means to remove dirt. It is used for a lot of specific types of "cleaning" including cleansing a person of leprosy but it also has a general meaning of "purifying" anything.

The word translated as "the outside" is normally an adverb meaning "outside" and "from without." It is the opposite of the Greek word translated later in verse as "inwardly." The difference is the presence of an article, making this "the outwardly."

The word for "cup" means "a drinking-cup", "a wine-cup", "a jar," and "a receptacle" for offerings in the temple. The cup is used by Jesus as a symbol for sharing burdens.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and". 

A unique (for Jesus) word is translated as "platter" that means "board", "plank", "drawing- or writing-tablet", "trencher", "platter",  and "public notice-board or register". This word is used in the Gospels earlier describing the presentation of John the Baptist's head, however, Jesus uses it only here. In the Matthew version (Matthew 23:2) another word is used. 

The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The two words translated as "the inward" are an article, "the," and an adverb meaning "within," this is a different form of the same root word used in the previous verse translated as "inwardly." The Greek article, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one," so "the one within." As in English, "inside" had the sense of "insider" and "being special" in contrast to "outsider" and "being common." This is the same structure that is used later in the verse translated as "the outside." Both "the inside" and "the outside" are singular.

There is no word in the Greek meaning "part". There was such a word used in the previous verse (Luke 11:36). 

The Greek word translated as "is  full" means "to be full" and, of animals, "to be laden." It is usually applied to ships and boats. This is not the word Christ uses frequently in the Gospels to mean described "being full." This word was chosen specifically to create the image of a heavily laden ship wallowing through the water.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and".

"Wickedness" is a Greek word that means "a bad state or condition", "wickedness", "vice", "cowardliness," and "mob-rule." It is from the same root as the word translated as "evil" in the Bible, but that has more the meaning of worthlessness. More about related concepts in this article

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Νῦν (adv) "Now" is nyn (nun), which means "now", "at the present moment", "at the present time", "just now", "presently," and "as it is."

ὑμεῖς (pron 2nd pl nom) "You" is hymeis (humeis), which are the singular nominative form of the second person, "you." 

οἱ Φαρισαῖοι (noun pl masc nom/voc) "Pharisees" is from Pharisaios, which means "the separated", "the separate ones", "separatist" and refers to the religious sect. The word comes from the Hebrew, pharash, which means "to distinguish." So the sense is also "the distinguished" or "the elite."

τὸ ἔσωθεν (noun sg neut acc) "The outside" is from exothen, which is normally an adverb meaning "from without" and "outward." When used as a noun, "the outside" or "those outside."

τοῦ ποτηρίου τοῦ ποτηρίου (noun sg neut gen) "Cup" is from poterion, which means "a drinking-cup", "a wine-cup", "a jar," and "a receptacle" for offerings in the temple.

καὶ (particle/conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τοῦ πίνακος [unique](noun sg masc gen) "Platter" is pinax, which means "board", "plank", "drawing- or writing-tablet", "trencher", "platter",  "public notice-board or register", "strop" to sharpen knives on,  and "toy-theatrer" for marionettes. 

καθαρίζετε, (verb 2nd pl imperf/pres/imperative ind act) "Make clean" is katharizo, which means "to clean", "to clear the ground of weeds,""prune away", "to remove dirt", "to purify,"and "to remove impurities." It is also used to describe the removal of the inedible parts from grain (winnowing), clearing weeds from a field, pruning a plant and so on.

τὸ (article sg neut nom) "Unto them that" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). --

ἔσωθεν (adv) "Within" is esothen, which means "from within" and "inward." -- "Within" is the adverb meaning "inwardly."

ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) "Your" is humon, the plural possessive form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -- The word translated as "your" is plural addressing a group of Jesus's listeners.

γέμει  [uncommon](verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Is full" is from gemo, which means "to be full" (especially referring to a ship), but generally as well), "to be full of" (w/gen), "to be filled with" (w/dat) and, of animals, "to be laden."

ἁρπαγῆς [uncommon](noun sg fem gen)"Extortion" is from harpage, which means "seizure", "robbery", "rape", "the thing seized", "booty", "prey," and "greediness,"

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

πονηρίας. [uncommon] (noun sg fem gen) "Wickedness" is from ponêria (poneria), which means "a bad state or condition", "wickedness", "vice", "baseness", "cowardliness," and "mob-rule."

Front Page Date: 

Mar 7 2018