Luke 15:6 And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and neighbours,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 15:6 And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and neighbours, saying unto them, Rejoice with me; for I have found my sheep which was lost.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

And show up in the house, he invites together the loved ones and the neighbors saying to them, "Together you will celebrate with me because I found that sheep of mine the one that has been lost. 

Hidden Meaning: 

This verse adds a scene of celebration that doesn't exist in the Matthew version.  It uses two common words that are mad uncommon by the addition of the same prefix meaning "together". 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

There is no "when" in the Greek. 

The word translated as "he cometh" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. 

An untranslated word appears here that means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

The Greek word translated as "home," is any dwelling place but not exclusively a separate house. It means the household or clan that lives in the building as well. It has an article so "the house". 

The verb translated as "he calleth together" is used for the first time here, but it just a different form of a common word. It is the word usually translated as "call", which also means "invite"m with the prefix meaning "together". which means to "call to council", "convoke", "convene", and specifically "invite with others" to a feast.

There is no "his" in the Greek. 

The term translated as "friends" is the adjective form one of three or four words in Greek for "love". The actual word means "embraced".  This is usually described as "brotherly love". It is in the form of an adjective used as a noun. In English, we would say "loved ones" or, since it has an article, "the loved ones". 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

The noun translated as "neighbors" means "neighbor" or "one of like kind". This is not the common word translated as "neighbor" in verses such as "love they neighbor".  It also has an article so "the neighbor". 

The word translated as "saying" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

"Rejoice" is another Greek verb used for the first time here. It consists of the more common word for "rejoice" with the prefix meaning "together". It means  "rejoice with", "wish one joy", and "congratulate." The form is not an active command as translated. It is most likely the future tense statement,  "together you will celebrate ". If it was a command, it would have to be passive which would be "Be celebrating together" 

The "with me" is in the dative first-person pronoun, which has a number of uses in Greek.

The word translated as "for" introduces a statement of fact or cause so "in order that" or "because". 

The term used for "I have found" is the source of our word, "heuristic," meaning enabling a person to find out something for themselves. It means "find out" and "discover."

 "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

"Sheep" is Christ's symbol for his followers. The Greek word refers to any domesticated animal and works better sometimes if translated simply as "flock" or "herd." However, here it is clearly one sheep. 

The word translated as "which" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

The word translated as "was lost" means to destroy or demolish. It is a verb in the form of an adjective, so "lost". 

Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

ἐλθὼν (part sg aor act masc nom) "he cometh" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. 

εἰς (prep) Untranslated is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." --

τὸν οἶκον (noun sg masc acc) "Home" is oikos, which means "house", "dwelling place", "room", "home", "meeting hall", "household goods", "substance," and "ruling family." It is any dwelling place but not exclusively a separate house. 

συνκαλεῖ [uncommon](verb 3rd sg pres ind act ) "He calleth together" is  sygkaleōwhich means to "call to council", "convoke", "convene", and "invite with others" to a feast.

τοὺς φίλους (adj pl masc acc) "Friends" is from philos, which as an adjective means "loved", "beloved", "dear", "kith and kin", "nearest and dearest", "friends," and (of things) "welcome" and "pleasant."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τοὺς γείτονας, [uncommon](noun pl masc/fem acc) "Neighbors" is geiton, which means "neighbour", "borderer", "from or in the neighbourhood", and "be of like kind".

λέγων (part sg pres act masc nom) "Saying" is lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelled the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep."

αὐτοῖς (adj pl masc dat) "Them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."  

Συνχάρητέ [uncommon](verb 2nd pl fut ind act or verb 2nd pl aor imperat pass ) "Rejoice" is Συνχάρητέ, which means to "rejoice with", "wish one joy", and "congratulate."

μοι (pron 1st sg dat) "With me" is moi, which means "I", "me", and "my". --

ὅτι (adv/conj) "For" is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore." 

εὗρον (verb 1st sg aor ind act) "I have found" is heurisko, which means "to find", "to find out", "to discover", "to devise", "to invent", "to get," and "to gain." 

τὸ πρόβατόν (noun sg neut acc) "Sheep" is probaton, which means any domesticated four-footed animal, "sheep", "cattle", "herds," and "flocks. 

μου (noun sg masc gen) "My" is emou, which means "me", and "mine". --

τὸ (article sg neut acc) "Unto them that" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." Here it is separated from its noun by a conjunction. -

ἀπολωλός. (part sg perf act neut acc ) "Was lost" is apollymi, which means "to demolish", "to lay waste", "to lose", "to perish", "to die", "to cease to exist," and "to be undone." 

Jul 11 2018