Luke 16:5 So he called every one of his lord's debtors unto him,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 16:5 So he called every one of his lord's debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owest thou unto my lord?

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

And, publicly summoning  each one of the debt debtors of that master of his self, he said to the foremost, "How much do you owe that lord of mine?"

Hidden Meaning: 

Jesus uses a couple of extreme words here, perhaps for humorous effect. Both the "he called" and "debtor" words used are not the simple, common Greek words that Jesus normally uses for these ideas, but longer, more complex words that are rarely used.  The reason for using this special word for "call" is that the call was visible, public and this word must convey this idea. 

The Greek word translated as "so" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). 

The verb translated as "he called" means "call upon" or "summon", but it has the specific meaning to "cite or summon into court." It literally means "to call toward" or "call into the presence".  It is in the form of an adjective working on or for oneself, "summoning for himself." This is an uncommon word for Jesus to use, a complex form of the common word for "call".  As we will see, the sense of this call must be public because the steward's master knows immediately what happens at these meetings. 

The Greek word translated as "every"  means "each", "all and each severally," and "each by himself."  Here the sense is "each one" rather than "every one". 

The Greek word translated as "one " means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same."As in English, it can be used as a pronoun, meaning a single person.

"His" is a special reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself," and so on.  It is not hte common form of "his" but one that means something more like "his own". 

The word translated as "lord's" is the same word that is often translated as "Lord" or "the Lord" in the NT. It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family."It was the term people used to address Christ, even though he had no formal authority. Today, we would say "boss" or "chief".

The word for "debtors" is a form of two different Greek words for "debt", something like "debt ower".  It means someone who owes something, that is, someone who was under a bond. In Christ's era, a person under a bond was almost a slave until the debt was paid.

There is no "and" here because the first verb above "called" is not active but an adjective, "calling". 

The word translated as "he said" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

The word translated as "the first" takes a lot of different types of "first" meanings from its context. Here, it could mean either the first in order or the foremost, that is, largest, debtor. 

The adjective translated as "how much"  means "of what quantity," [in distance] "how far." [of number] how far," [of time] "how long," [of value] "how much", "how great", "how many," and "how much."

"Owest thou" is the Greek verb that means "to owe", "to have to pay", "to be bound to render", "to be bound", "to be obliged," and "to account for." It is from the same root as the last part of the word for "debtor". 

"My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. 

The word translated as "lord" is the same word that is often translated as "Lord" or "the Lord" in the NT. It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." 

Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "So" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

προσκαλεσάμενος [uncommon](part sg aor mid masc nom) "he called" is from proskaleo, which means to"call on", "summon", "address", "accost", "call to oneself", "invite", "summon", "cite or summon into court," in the passive, "to be summoned," and metaphorically, "call forth," and "excite."  [uncommon](part sg aor mid masc nom) "he called" is from proskaleo, which means to"call on", "summon", "address", "accost", "call to oneself", "invite", "summon", "cite or summon into court," in the passive, "to be summoned," and metaphorically, "call forth," and "excite."  -- 

ἕνα (noun sg masc acc) "One" is heis, which means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same." This adjective is irregular, having a number of forms depending on sex, number, and case: heis, henos, heni, hen, hena, mia, mias, miai, mian; hen, henos, hen.  --

ἕκαστον [uncommon](adj sg masc acc) "Every" is from hekastos, which means "each", "all and each severally," and "each by himself."

τῶν χρεοφιλετῶν {χρέος ὀφειλέτης} (noun pl masc gen) "Debtors" is from chreopheileteswhich means "debtor" or "under bond". It means literally "debt debtor". "Debt" is from chreos.   "Debtor" is opheiletes, which means "a debtor", "a person who owes a debt" or "one who is under a bond."

τοῦ κυρίου (noun sg masc gen) "Lord" is kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." --

ἑαυτοῦ (pro sg masc gen) "His" is heautou, is a reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself", "itself" "themselves," and "ourselves." It is an alternative to autos. -- 

ἔλεγεν (verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "Said" is lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelled the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep." --

τῷ πρώτῳ (adj sg masc dat) "Unto the first" is protos. In place, this means "before", "in front," and, as a noun, "the foremost." Of time, it means "former", "earlier," and, as a noun, "the initial." In order, it means "the first." In math, it means the prime numbers. Of rank or degree, it means "superior" or, as a noun, "the highest" or "the best." 

Πόσον (adj sg masc acc) "How much" is from posos (posos), which means "of what quantity," [in distance] "how far." [of number] how far," [of time] "how long," [of value] "how much", "how great", "how many," and "how much." -

ὀφείλεις  (verb 2nd sg pres ind act) "Owest thou" is from opheilô, which means "to owe", "to have to pay", "to be bound to render", "to be bound", "to be obliged," and "to account for."

τῷ κυρίῳ (noun sg masc dat) "Lord" is kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." --

μου; (pro sg masc gen) "My" is mou, which mean "my," or "mine." --

Aug 10 2018