John 4:10 If thou knewest the gift of God,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

If you had just perceived the bounty of God and who has commanded you "Give me to drink," you could have asked him and he could have granted you the water of being alive.

KJV : 

Jhn 4:10 If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The word translated as"knewest" is in the pluperfect tense, which occurs rarely. It corresponds to the sense of the English pluperfect, which indicates an event viewed as having been once and for all accomplished in past time.

The word translated as "gift" has the broader sense of "bounty" and indicates a strong sense of generosity, that is, that the things that are given freely.

The word translated as "saith" captures a lot of different ideas. In the alternative, we use "command" because the phrase it refers to is in the imperative, that is, the form of command.

The article translated as "wouldest" and "would" describes a limitation of circumstances. While it can mean "would" in the sense of a person having a choice, it might be better translated here as "could" since the limitation is one of ability, that is, the ability to perceive. The sense of this verse in Greek is almost wistful, if you could only seen the situation as the opportunity of a lifetime, you could have made so much more of it.

The form used for the participle translated as "living" is most commonly nominative case, that is, indicating the subject of the sentence. As translated, I expected it to be genitive, that is, the descriptive case, modifying "water". This lead be to the "being alive" sense of the verb.

As in the last scene with Nicodemus, Christ is talking about "water". Here it is described as the "water of life", while in Jhn 3:5 it was used to describe a type of birth. Both concepts are tied strongly to In the cycle of transformation, water is transformed to wine and wine into blood. This might be seen as life becoming awareness becoming suffering. Spirit, that is breath, is a part of this cycle, as a beginning and end.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Εἰ "If" is from ei, which is the particle used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect questions, "whether." It also means "if ever", "in case," and "whenever." It is combined with various conjunctions to create derivative conditions.

ᾔδεις (2nd sg plup ind act) "Thou knewest" is from (eido) which means "to see", "to examine", "to perceive", "to behold", "to know how to do", "to see with the mind's eye," and "to know."

τὴν δωρεὰν "Gift" is from dorea, which means "gift", "present", "bounty," and, as an adverb, "free gift," and "freely."

τοῦ θεοῦ "Of God" is from theos (theos), which means "God," "divine," and "Deity."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τίς "Who" is from tis (tis) which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "many a one", "whoever," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what."

ἐστιν( 3rd sg pres ind act ) "It is" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

"That" is from hos (hos), which is the demonstrative pronoun in its various forms (hê, ho, gen. hou, hês, hou, etc. ; dat. pl. hois, hais, hois, etc. gen. hoou). It means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

λέγων (part sg pres act masc nom) "Saith" is from legô (lego) means "pick up", "choose for oneself", "pick out," and "count," but it used to mean "recount", "tell over", "say", "speak", "teach", "mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command."

σοι "To thee" is from soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you".

Δός 2nd sg aor imperat act) "Give" is from didômi (didomi), which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe."

μοι "Me" is from moi, which means "I", "me", and "my".

πεῖν, (2nd aor act inf) "To drink" is from pinô (pino), which means "to drink."

σὺ "Su" is from su (su) which means "you" and "your."

ἂν "W" is from an, which is a particle used with verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. There is no exact equivalent in English, but it is translated as "possibly," "would have", "might", "should," and "could."

ᾔτησας (2nd sg aor ind act) "Have asked" is from aiteô (aiteo), which means "to ask", "to demand", "to beg", "to claim," and "to ask for one's own use."

αὐτὸν "Of Him" is from autos (autos), which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

καὶ kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἔδωκεν 3rd sg aor ind act ) "He...have given" is from didômi (didomi), which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe."

ἄν W" is from an, which is a particle used with verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. There is no exact equivalent in English, but it is translated as "possibly," "would have", "might", "should," and "could."

σοι ""Thee" is from soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you".

ὕδωρ Water" is from hudôr (hydor), which means "water", "spring water", "drinking water", "rain water", "rain", "time running out" (from the water clocks used in courts), "liquid," the constellation Aquarius, the winter solstice, and a place with mineral waters.

ζῶν." (part sg pres act masc nom) "Living" is from zaô (zao), which means "to live", "the living," and "to be alive." It is a metaphor for "to be full of life", "to be strong," and "to be fresh."