John 19:11 ...Thou couldest have no power at all against me,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

No, you possess no power against me, nothing, if not it were having been given to you from above by this the one giving me over to you a greater error possesses.

KJV : 

John 19:11 ...Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The word translated as "Thou couldest have" means to "have", "possess", "bear", "keep close", "have means to do",  "to have due to one", or "keep" and many specific uses. There form is the simple past. There is no reason for the "couldest" here.

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence captures the same idea.

The term translated as "power" isn't the "power" of skill or energy but of authority, control, and the ability to choose.

The Greek word translated as "at all" means "nothing," "no one" and other negatives nouns.

The word translated as "against" means "down from", "down into", "against", "opposite", "separately", "at a time", "towards", "in accordance with", "concerning", "corresponding with", "during the course of a period," and "severally."

"Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of m".

Two Greek words are translated as "except". Literally, they mean "if not" but this phrase is used to mean "except", "instead", and "but." 

The verb "it were" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

The verb translated as "given" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give." The tense is the perfect, "having been given."

The word for "thee" is the indirect object form of the pronoun. 

"From above" is an adverb that means "from above", "from on high," [in a narrative] "from the beginning" or "from further back", "higher", "more universal," [NT translation] "over again", "anew," and "afresh."

Two words are translated as "therefore" is a preposition phrase that means "through this" or "by this." The preposition means "through, "in the midst of," or "by (a cause)." "This" is a demonstrative pronoun that means "from here", "from there", "this [thing]," or "that [thing]."

The word translated as "he that" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

"Delivered " is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is often translated in the KJV as "betray" but it has no real sense of that.

"Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

The word for "unto thee" is the indirect object form of the pronoun. 

The word translated as "hath" means to "have", "possess", "bear", "keep close", "have means to do",  "to have due to one", or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as it is in English. 

There is no "the" here.

"Greater" is an adjective which is the comparative form of the word meaning "big" or "great." It means "bigger", "higher", "longer", "greater" and simply, "superior." When it is introduced by an article, it means "the greater." It is not the superlative form.

The word translated as "sin" is a form of a word that means "to fail in one's purpose", "to neglect," and "to be deprived of." It has no sense of doing malicious evil in Greek. The best English translation is "mistakes" or "failures" rather than what we commonly think of as the evils of "sin." See this article for more information and context.

Wordplay: 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Οὐκ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective. --

εἶχες ( verb 2nd sg imperf ind act ) "Thou coudest have" is echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to have due to one", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to carry", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." --

ἐξουσίαν (noun sg dem acc) "Power" is exousia which means "control", "the power of choice", "permission", "the power of authority", "the right of privilege", "abundance of means," and "abuse of power." --

κατ᾽ (prep) "Against" is kata, which, as a preposition, means "downwards", "down from", "down into", "against", "down toward", "opposite", "separately", "individually", "at a time", "towards", "in accordance with", "concerning", "corresponding with", "during the course of a period," and "severally." As an adverb, it means "according as", "just as", "in so far as", "wherefore", "like as if" and "exactly as." -- 

ἐμοῦ (noun sg masc gen) "Me" is emou, which means "me", and "mine". --  

οὐδεμίαν (pro sg fem acc) "At all" is oudeis which means "no one", "not one", "nothing", "naught", "good for naught," and "no matter." --

εἰ μὴ (conj particle) "Except" is ei me, which is the conjunction that means "if not", "but," and "except." εἰ is the particle use with the imperative usually to express conditions "if" or indirect questions, "whether." (me) is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." - 

ἦν ( verb 3rd sg imperf ind act ) "It were" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen",  and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.") --

δεδομένον ( part sg perf mp neut nom ) "Given" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." --

σοι (pron 2nd sg dat) "Thee" is soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you". -- 

ἄνωθεν: (adv)  "From above" is from anothen, which means "from above", "from on high," [in a narrative] "from the beginning" or "from further back", "higher", "more universal," [NT translation] "over again", "anew," and "afresh."

διὰ τοῦτο (prep phrase) "Therefore" is literally "through this" or "by this."  (prep) "Through" is dia which means "through", "in the midst of", "in a line (movement)", "throughout (time)", "by (causal)", "among," and "between." --

ὁ  (article sg masc nom) "He that" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." --

παραδούς ( part sg aor act masc nom ) "Delivered up" is paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow." --

μέ (noun sg masc acc) "Me" is eme, which means "I", "me", and "my". --

σοι (pron 2nd sg dat) "Unto thee" is soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you". -- 

μείζονα (adj sg masc/fem acc comp) "Greater" is meizon which means "bigger", "higher", "longer," and "greater" and is the comparative form of megas, which means "big" and "great." The superlative form "greatest" is megistos, μέγιστος.--

ἁμαρτίαν Sin" is hamartia, which means "to miss the mark", "failure", "fault," and "error." Only in religious contexts does it become "guilt" and "sin." --

ἔχει. ( verb 3rd sg pres ind act ) "Hath" is echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to have due to one", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to carry", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." --

Front Page Date: 

Apr 28 2019