Luke 13:15 Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath l

Spoken to: 

group

After being criticized for healing on the sabbath by the head of a meeting house.

KJV: 

Luke 13:15 Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead him away to watering?

NIV : 

Luke 13:15 You hypocrites! Each of you works on the Sabbath day! Don’t you untie your ox or your donkey from its stall on the Sabbath and lead it out for water?

LISTENERS HEARD: 

You, actors! Each of you on the Sabbath, don't you by yourself untie that ox of yours--or that ass--from the crib and, leading away, yourself water it?

MY TAKE: 

What needs to be done everyday is also done on the Sabbath.

GREEK (Each Word Explained Bottom of Page): 

GREEK ORDER: 

Ὑποκριται,  ἕκαστος ὑμῶν       τῷ σαββάτῳ οὐ     λύει                             τὸν βοῦν αὐτοῦ      τὸν   ὄνον 
You, actors! Each     of you on the Sabbath  don't  you by yourself' untie that ox    of yours--or that ass- -

ἀπὸ   τῆς φάτνης καὶ   ἀπάγων          ποτίζει;
from the crib      and,  leading away, by yourself water it?

LOST IN TRANSLATION: 

The active verbs here (untie, give water) and in the middle voice whic means "by/for/to yourself," the sense is to emphasize the people themselves acting. The word translated as "each" can also mean "by yourself."

# KJV TRANSLATION ISSUES: 

8

Thou hypocrite(UW, WN), doth not each one(IW) of you on the sabbath loose his (MWthe) ox or his(WW) ass from the stall(WW), and lead(WF) him away to watering(WF)?

  • UW --Untranslated Word -- The word "hypocrites" means "actor." It is an untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • WN  --Wrong Number- The word "hypocrite" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural.
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "one" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "ox" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "his" should be something more like "the."
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "stall" should be something more like "manger."
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "leading."
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is not an infinitive  but an active verb. 

# NIV TRANSLATION ISSUES: 

13

You hypocrites!(UW), Each of you works(IW) on the Sabbath day! Don’t you untie your(WW) (MWthe) ox or your(WW) donkey from its stall(WW) [on the Sabbath](IP3) and lead(WF) it out for(IW) water(WF)?

  • UW --Untranslated Word -- The word "hypocrites" means "actor." It is an untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "works" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "your" should be something more like "his."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "ox" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "your" should be something more like "the."
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "its" should be something more like "the."
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "stall" should be something more like "manger."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The "on the sabbath" doesn't exist in the source. This is counted as 3 translation issues, not 1.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "leading."
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "for" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is not a noun but an active verb. 

EACH WORD of KJV : 

Thou - This is from the vocative form of the noun that means it names the person being talked to.

hypocrite, -- (UW, WN) ) The Greek for "the hypocrites" is a great example of a word that has taken its English meaning from how it is used in the Bible rather than the original Greek. The primary meaning during Christ's era was "an actor." See this article on the word and its wordplay.  Interestingly enough, it also means "interpreter," which is another separation between what is said and reality. Its literal meaning is "beneath separation," which describes the separation between fact and fiction, real action versus pretended action. This word is not singular but plural.

doth -- This helping verb is used to create questions, commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English.

not --The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It means "no," "not," or"no truly." It makes a negative statement of fact. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words.

each -- The Greek word translated as "each"  means "each," "all and each severally," and "each by himself."

one -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the possessive form (genitive case) of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

you -- The word translated as "you" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the possessive (genitive) case. This pronoun follows the noun so the possessive "of yours." When it precedes a definite article before the word it modifies, the sense may be "yours" or "part of you."

on -- This word "on" comes from the indirect object form of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the - The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

sabbath -- The word translated as the "the Sabbath day" is the Greek version of the Hebrew word "shabbat" meaning "rest" or "day of rest." 

loose - The word translated as "loosen" means to "unbind. "dissolve," "break up," "undo," "and means "to annul" a law. It is the same word Jesus uses to refer to "breaking" commandments.

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word correctly translated as third-person "his/him" in English.  The word appears after the noun so the sense is "of his."

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

ox -- The word translated as "ox" means "bull" or "ox". It is an uncommon word. 

or -- "Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

his (WW)  This word doesn't mean "his."

ass -- The word translated as "ass" means an "ass" as a beast of burden. It is also used in humor and many sayings. The effect here seems primarily humorous, perhaps referring to someone making noise in the audience.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both locations and when referring to a source or a cause. It also means the instrument "by" which a thing is done and "away from." It is not the word form  usually translated as "of." Referring to time, it means "from," and "after."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

stall, -- (WW) The word translated as "stall"  means "manger", "crib", and it is a proverb of ease and comfort. It is used uniquely here. It doesn't describe a stall at all but being tied to a feeding trough. This word doesn't mean "stall." 

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

lead   - (WF) The Greek translated as "Leadeth" means "to lead". "to carry away", "to pay" and "to render a service." It is an uncommon word for Jesus to use. This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "leading."

it -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

 and lead it out for water?

away- This completes the meaning of the verb. It is from the prefix.

to  -- This "to" is added to create the infinitive form of the following verb.

watering? -- (WF) The "watering" is a verb that means "to give a drink," "to water," "to moisten," and metaphorically "to saturate one's mind." This is the word used for watering livestock. The root word meaning "to drink" has a double meaning of "celebrate." This is not an infinitive  but an active verb. 

EACH WORD of NIV : 

You - This is from the vocative form of the noun that means it names the person being talked to.

hypocrites, -- (UW) The Greek for "the hypocrites" is a great example of a word that has taken its English meaning from how it is used in the Bible rather than the original Greek. The primary meaning during Christ's era was "an actor." See this article on the word and its wordplay.  Interestingly enough, it also means "interpreter," which is another separation between what is said and reality. Its literal meaning is "beneath separation," which describes the separation between fact and fiction, real action versus pretended action.

Each -- The Greek word translated as "each"  means "each," "all and each severally," and "each by himself."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the possessive form (genitive case) of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

you -- The word translated as "you" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the possessive (genitive) case. This pronoun follows the noun so the possessive "of yours." When it precedes a definite article before the word it modifies, the sense may be "yours" or "part of you."

works -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

on -- This word "on" comes from the indirect object form of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the - The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

sabbath day -- The word translated as the "the Sabbath day" is the Greek version of the Hebrew word "shabbat" meaning "rest" or "day of rest." 

Do -- This helping verb is used to create questions, commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English.

n’t -- (WP) The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It means "no," "not," or"no truly." It makes a negative statement of fact. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words. The "not" doesn't belong here but before the verb.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

untie - The word translated as "untie" means to "unbind. "dissolve," "break up," "undo," "and means "to annul" a law. It is the same word Jesus uses to refer to "breaking" commandments.

your -- (WW) The word translated as "your" is the Greek word correctly translated as third-person "his/him" in English.  The word appears after the noun so the sense is "of his."

ox -- The word translated as "ox" means "bull" or "ox". It is an uncommon word. 

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

or -- "Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

your -- (WW) The word translated as "your" is the Greek word correctly translated as third-person "his/him" in English.  The word appears after the noun so the sense is "of his."

ass -- The word translated as "ass" means an "ass" as a beast of burden. It is also used in humor and many sayings. The effect here seems primarily humorous, perhaps referring to someone making noise in the audience.

from its stall on the Sabbath and lead it out for water?

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

ox -- The word translated as "ox" means "bull" or "ox". It is an uncommon word. 

or -- "Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

your (WW)  This word doesn't mean "his."

ass -- The word translated as "ass" means an "ass" as a beast of burden. It is also used in humor and many sayings. The effect here seems primarily humorous, perhaps referring to someone making noise in the audience.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both locations and when referring to a source or a cause. It also means the instrument "by" which a thing is done and "away from." It is not the word form  usually translated as "of." Referring to time, it means "from," and "after."

its -- (WW) The word translated as "its" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more.  This word doesn't mean "its." 

stall, -- (WW) The word translated as "stall"  means "manger", "crib", and it is a proverb of ease and comfort. It is used uniquely here. It doesn't describe a stall at all but being tied to a feeding trough. This word doesn't mean "stall." 

on the Sabbath -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as this phrase in the Greek source.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

lead   - (WF) The Greek translated as "Leadeth" means "to lead". "to carry away", "to pay" and "to render a service." It is an uncommon word for Jesus to use. This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "leading."

it-- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

out - This completes the meaning of the verb. It is from the prefix.

for -- -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

watering? -- (WF) The "watering" is a verb that means "to give a drink," "to water," "to moisten," and metaphorically "to saturate one's mind." This is the word used for watering livestock. The root word meaning "to drink" has a double meaning of "celebrate." This is not a noun but an active verb. 

COMPARISON: GREEK to KJV : 

Ὑποκριται, [18 verses](noun pl masc voc) "Hypocrites" is hypokrites, which means "an interpreter," "an actor," "a stage player," and "a dissembler."

ἕκαστος [9 verses] (adj sg masc nom) "Every"  is from hekastos, which means "each," "all and each severally," and "each by himself."

ὑμῶν [168 verses](pron 2nd pl gen) "Your/you" is humon, the plural possessive form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." It is either a possessive pronoun or the object of a preposition. As an object of a preposition, the genitive indicates movement away or a position away from something.

τῷ [821 verses](article sg neut dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").   It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."  -

σαββάτῳ  [17 verses] (noun sg neut dat)  "The sabbath days" is from sabbaton, which means "Sabbath," "seven days of week," and "first day of week."

οὐ [269 verses](adv) "Not" is ou , the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences.  The negative, οὐ, denies, is absolute, and objective.

λύει   [13 verses] (verb 2nd sg pres ind mp) "Doth loose" is lyo, (luo) which means "loosen," "unbind," "unfasten," "unyoke," "unharness," "release," "deliver," "give up," "dissolve," "break up," "undo," "destroy," "repeal," "annul," "break," "solve," "fulfill," "atone for," "fulfill," and "pay." -

τὸν [821 verses](article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."  -- 

βοῦν [3 verses](noun sg masc acc)"Ox" is bous, which means " bullock", "bull", "ox", metaph. of any "dam" or "mother".

αὐτοῦ [142 verses](adv/adj sg masc gen) "His/" is autou, which means is the singular adjective used as the genitive pronoun, which is used as a possessive form or the object of prepositions and sometimes verbs as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In its adverbial form, this means "just here" or "exactly there." This form is often used as the object of a preposition, him." This form of an object of a preposition means a movement away from something or a position away from something else. The time sense of a genitive object is that the event occurred within a specified time. Though the form is masculine, it refers to masculine words, not people.  The masculine form is used to refer to people in general, not just men.

[92 verses](conj/adv)  "Or" is e, which is a particle used as a disjunctive, "either," "or," , or as a comparative, "than" or "rather than." It is (explam) also an exclamation, "hi!" and an adverb,(adv)  meaning "in truth" and "of a surety." It is used with comparative forms of adjective or with positive adjective implying a comparison.

τὸν [821 verses](article sg masc nom)  "His" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."  -- 

ὄνον [2 verses](noun sg fem acc) "Ass" is from onos, which  means "ass," the common beast of burden. Like the English term, it carries a certain sense of derision in Greek. However, it was also part of many different sayings.

*ἀπὸ [190 verses]​(prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause. It also means the instrument "by" which a thing is done. Referring to time, it means "from," and "after."  Usually takes the genitive object. As a prefix, means "asunder," "completing," "ceasing,"  "back again," and "by way of abuse."

τῆς [821 verses](article sg fem grn)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").   It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." 

φάτνης [1 verse](noun sg fem gen) "Stall" is phatne, which means "manger", "crib", proverb. of ease and comfort

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just." In a series, it can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

ἀπάγων  [3 verses](part sg pres act masc nom) "Lead...away" is apago, which means to "lead away", "carry off", "hold far off", "draw off", "retire", "withdraw", "abduct", "bring back", "bring home", "return", "render what one owes", "pay", "render service," and "arrest and carry off."

ποτίζει; [7 verses] (verb 2nd sg pres ind mp) "Give to drink"  is potizo, which means "to give a drink," "to water," "to moisten," and metaphorically "to saturate one's mind."

Wordplay: 

The "loosen" here is the same verb that means to "annul a law". 

"Ass" refers not only to the beast of burden but to a certain comical kind of person. 

The root word for "give a drink" also means to "celebrate".

Related Verses: 

Front Page Date: 

Aug 14 2024