Luke 13:16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham,

Spoken to: 

group

After being criticized for healing on the sabbath by the head of a meeting house.

KJV: 

Luke 13:16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?

NIV : 

Luke 13:16 Then should not this woman, a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan has kept bound for eighteen long years, be set free on the Sabbath day from what bound her?”

LISTENERS HEARD: 

This one, however, being a daughter of Abraham whom the adversary bound. Look, ten and eight years! Isn't she needed to be released from that bound there on the day of the Sabbath. 

MY TAKE: 

Enough is enough,even on the Sabbath.

GREEK (Each Word Explained Bottom of Page): 

GREEK ORDER: 

ταύτην     δὲ              θυγατέρα     Ἀβραὰμ  οὖσαν, ἣν       Σατανᾶς
This one, however, a daughter of Abraham  being whom the adversary bound.

ἰδοὺ   δέκα καὶ ὀκτὼ ἔτη,    οὐκ        ἔδει      λυθῆναι          ἀπὸ  τοῦ    δεσμοῦ τούτου
Look, ten   and eight years! Isn't she needed to be released from that bound     there

     τῇ ἡμέρᾳ       τοῦ σαββάτου;
on the day      of the Sabbath. 

LOST IN TRANSLATION: 

This verse is rearranged from the Greek. The Greek is something you might say, first pointing out the woman, then describing her situation. The description of being released from the fetters does more than describe the woman. It is a general statement about the boundaries on the Sabbath. There is one unique word here that Jesus uses nowhere else.

# KJV TRANSLATION ISSUES: 

11

And(WW) ought(CW) not this woman(IW), being a daughter of Abraham, whom (MWthe) Satan(CW) hath(WT) bound, lo, these(IW) eighteen years, be loosed(WF) from this(CW) (MWthe) bond on the sabbath (MWthe) day?

  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "and" should be something more like "but."
  • CW --Confusing Word -- The "ought" does not capture the word's specific meaning in this situation.-- 
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "woman" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "satan" is not shown in the English translation. 
  • UW --Untranslated Word -- The word "satan" means "adversary." It is an untranslated Aramaic word adopted into English.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "has" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "these" before "eighteen" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  The "loosened" is not an active verb but an infinitive, "to be loosened."
  • CW --Confusing Word -- The "this" should be either "here" or "there" in most situations.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "day" is not shown in the English translation.

Then(WW) should(CW) not this woman(IW), (MW)being a daughter of Abraham, whom (MWthe)  Satan(CW) has(WT) kept(IW) bound (MWsee) for eighteen long(IW) years, [be set free](WF) on the Sabbath  (MWthe) day from what(IW) bound(WF) her(IW)?

  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "then" should be something more like "but."
  • CW --Confusing Word -- The "should" does not capture the word's specific meaning in this situation.-- 
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "woman" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "being "  after "woman" is not shown in the English translation. 
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "satan" is not shown in the English translation. 
  • UW --Untranslated Word -- The word "satan" means "adversary." It is an untranslated Aramaic word adopted into English.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "has" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "kept" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "see"  after "for" is not shown in the English translation. "
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "long" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  The "set free" is not an active verb but an infinitive, "to be set free.
  • CW --Confusing Word -- The "this" should be either "here" or "there" in most situations.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "day" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "what" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  The "set free" is not an active verb but an infinitive, "to be loosened.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  The "bound" is not an active verb but a noun, "the one bound here."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "here"  after "here" is not shown in the English translation. 

EACH WORD of KJV : 

And -- (WW) The Greek word translated as "and" means "but," "yet," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

ought -- (CW, WF)  The Greek verb translated as "ought" is a special verb that means "it/he/she needed," and "there was a need." It is not a helping verb like we have in English but an active verb. It is always singular, 3rd person, past tense. Its form is fixed and, when it refers to a verb, that verb's form is an infinitive like we say "he needed to go," but the subject is not separate from the verb.

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words. 

this - The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," "here," or "there" the nearer or the further depending on usage. When the noun already has an article, it meaning is "here." It is often used in the neuter plural without a noun to refer to "these things."

woman, -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

being --The verb "being" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.  The word also means "to exist" and where it doesn't connect to characteristics or conditions.

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a noun doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

daughter -- The word translated as "daughter" means any female descendant and was used to address female servants and slaves

of -- This word "of"  comes from the possessive form (genitive case) of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

Abraham, -- This is from the Greek spelling of "Abraham."

whom -- The word translated as "whom" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun, "he," "she," "it," "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "when," "for which reason," and many similar meanings. In the neuter, plural, its sense is "these things."

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

Satan -- (UW) "Satan" is from an Aramaic word meaning "adversary" or "opponent." Jesus uses it to refer both to external opposition and our desire to make bad decisions.  See this article on the word and this article on this word and related terms.  -

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "has" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

bound, -- "Bound" is  a verb that means "to bind," "to keep in bonds," "to tie," "to hinder from," and "to fetter. "

lo, -- "Behold" is a verbal command meaning "See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "ta-da" in a magic show, or "voila" in French which means "see there". "Look here!" or "See there!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways.

these -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

eigh -- "Eight" is from a number that means "eight". 

missing "and" -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," joining the "eight' and "ten." It is not needed in translation.

teen -- "Ten" is the Greek word for the numeral "ten."

years, - -"Years" is from a Greek word that means "year", "yearly", and "annually". It is also an uncommon word, used primarily by Luke. 

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

loosed -- (WF) The word translated as "loosen" means to "unbind. "dissolve," "break up," "undo," "and means "to annul" a law. It is the same word Jesus uses to refer to "breaking" commandments.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both locations and when referring to a source or a cause. It also means the instrument "by" which a thing is done and "away from."Referring to time, it means "from," and "after."

this -- (CW) The word translated as "this" means "from here" "from there" or "this/that thing/person here/there." As a pronoun by itself, it means "this here" but it can be shortened to just "this."  The Bible usually translates it as the adjective "this" when it appears after words modifying them, which is confusing because the definite article, with which it is often used before the word, also can mean "this." It works better as "here," which is how Jesus usually uses it, but it can also mean "there." It often comes after the noun, emphasizing it, "this thing here." 

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "word" is not shown in the English translation.

bond -- "Bond" is an adjective form for a verb that means "to bind", "to keep in bonds", "to tie", "to hinder from," and "to fetter. " It is a past participle in a form that indicates something acting on itself so "has been tied itself." The sense is not that the ass was tied up by someone, but rather that it has tangled itself up in something.

on -- This word "to" comes from the indirect object form of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

sabbath -- The word translated as the "Sabbath" is the Greek version of the Hebrew word "shabbat" meaning "rest" or "day of rest." 

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

day? -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

EACH WORD of NIV : 

Then -- (WW) The Greek word translated as "then" means "but," "yet," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

should -- (CW)  The Greek verb translated as "should " is a special verb that means "it/he/she needed," and "there was a need." It is not a helping verb like we have in English but an active verb. It is always singular, 3rd person, past tense. Its form is fixed and, when it refers to a verb, that verb's form is an infinitive like we say "he needed to go," but the subject is not separate from the verb.

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words.

this - The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," "here," or "there" the nearer or the further depending on usage. When the noun already has an article, it meaning is "here." It is often used in the neuter plural without a noun to refer to "these things."

woman, -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

missing "being "  -- (MW) The untranslated word  "being" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.  The word also means "to exist" and where it doesn't connect to characteristics or conditions. This is an active verb not a participle, "is."

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a noun doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

daughter -- The word translated as "daughter" means any female descendant and was used to address female servants and slaves

of -- This word "of"  comes from the possessive form (genitive case) of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

Abraham, -- This is from the Greek spelling of "Abraham."

whom -- The word translated as "whom" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun, "he," "she," "it," "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "when," "for which reason," and many similar meanings. In the neuter, plural, its sense is "these things."

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

Satan -- (UW) "Satan" is from an Aramaic word meaning "adversary" or "opponent." Jesus uses it to refer both to external opposition and our desire to make bad decisions.  See this article on the word and this article on this word and related terms.  -

has -- (WT) This helping verb "has" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

kept -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

bound, -- "Bound" is  a verb that means "to bind," "to keep in bonds," "to tie," "to hinder from," and "to fetter. "

missing "See"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "ta-da" in a magic show, or "voila" in French which means "see there". "Look here!" or "See there!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways.

for -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

eigh -- "Eight" is from a number that means "eight". 

missing "and" -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," joining the "eight' and "ten." It is not needed in translation.

teen -- "Ten" is the Greek word for the numeral "ten."

long -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

years, - -"Years" is from a Greek word that means "year", "yearly", and "annually". It is also an uncommon word, used primarily by Luke. 

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

set free -- (WF) The word translated as "set free" means to "unbind. "dissolve," "break up," "undo," "and means "to annul" a law. It is the same word Jesus uses to refer to "breaking" commandments.

on -- This word "to" comes from the indirect object form of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

sabbath -- The word translated as the "Sabbath" is the Greek version of the Hebrew word "shabbat" meaning "rest" or "day of rest." 

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

day -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both locations and when referring to a source or a cause. It also means the instrument "by" which a thing is done and "away from."Referring to time, it means "from," and "after."

what -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

bound -- (WF) "Bound " is an adjective form for a verb that means "to bind", "to keep in bonds", "to tie", "to hinder from," and "to fetter. " It is a past participle in a form that indicates something acting on itself so "has been tied itself." The sense is not that the ass was tied up by someone, but rather that it has tangled itself up in something. The "bound" is not an active verb but a noun, "the one bound here."

"missing "here"  -- (MW) The untranslated word means "from here" "from there" or "this/that thing/person here/there." As a pronoun by itself, it means "this here" but it can be shortened to just "this."  The Bible usually translates it as the adjective "this" when it appears after words modifying them, which is confusing because the definite article, with which it is often used before the word, also can mean "this." It works better as "here," which is how Jesus usually uses it, but it can also mean "there." It often comes after the noun, emphasizing it, "this thing here." 

her?-- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source. IW - Inserted Word-- The "her" doesn't exist in the source.

COMPARISON: GREEK to KJV : 

ταύτην [96 verses] (adj sg fem acc) "This" is tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these," "this," "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. When ταῦτα and ἐκεῖνος refer to two things ἐκεῖνος, which normally means "the nearer" as well belongs to the more remote, "the latter" in time, place, or thought, οὗτος to "the nearer".

δὲ [446 verses](conj) "But" is de which means "but," "yet," "however," and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be an explanation of an indirect cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). In an  "if" (εἰ) clause or temporal "when" (ὅταν) clause the sense is "if/when... then." In a series begun by men, it means "on the other hand." In a listing, the sense is "then" or "yet." After an interruption, "so then." It can also be an explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").  When used with a conditional starting a clause, the sense is "if/when...then." When used with a particle meaning "indeed" the sense is "on one hand...on the other hand." In a listing, the sense is "then" or "yet." After an interruption, "so then."

θυγατέρα [9 verses](noun sg fem acc) "Daughter" is the Greek, thygater, which is generally a female descendant, "maidservant," "female slave," and "villages dependent on a city."

Ἀβραὰμ [18 verses](Hebrew name) "Abraham" is Abraam, which is the Greek form of "Abraham."

οὖσαν [614 verses] (part sg pres act fem acc) "Being" is eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen,"  and "is possible." With the possessive (genitive) object, it means "is descended from," "is the type of," "belongs to," "is made of," "is a duty of," "is at the mercy of," or " is dependent on." With an indirect (dative) object, it means "have" where the subject and object are reversed.  "It is to him" becomes "it is his" or "he has it."  With the preposition,"into" (εἰς), the sense is "consist of." When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are."

ἣν  [294 verses] (pron sg fem acc) "Whom" is hos, which means "this," "that," "he," "she," "it," "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "when," " "for which reason," and many similar meanings. In the neuter, plural, its sense is "these things."

ἔδησεν [10 verses] (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Hath bound" is deo which means "to bind," "to keep in bonds," "to tie," "to hinder from," and "to fetter. "

 [821 verses](article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."  -- 

Σατανᾶς [16 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Satan" is satanas, which is an Aramaic word meaning "adversary," "opponents," or "one who opposes another in purpose or act. "

ἰδοὺ [52 verses](adv, verb 2nd sg aor imperat mid) "Behold" is idou, which means "to behold," "to see," and "to perceive." It acts as an adverbial phrase in this form meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!' It is a form of the verb eido, which means "to see." This Greek word was translated into the Latin ecce, "behold."

δέκα [11 verses](numeral ) "Ten" is from deka, which means the number ten.

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ὀκτὼ [2 verses] (numeral) "Eight" is from okto, which means the number "eight".

ἔτη,  [6 verses] (noun pl neut acc) "Years" is from etos, which means "year", "yearly", and "annually".

οὐκ [269 verses](adv) "Not" is ou , the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences.  The negative, οὐ, denies, is absolute, and objective.

ἔδει  [28 verses](verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "Ought" is dei, which means "it needs," and "there is need." The object it takes is an infinitive. It is the past tense.

λυθῆναι  [13 verses](verb aor inf pass) "Be loosened" is lyo, (luo) which means "loosen," "unbind," "unfasten," "unyoke," "unharness," "release," "deliver," "give up," "dissolve," "break up," "undo," "destroy," "repeal," "annul," "break," "solve," "fulfill," "atone for," "fulfill," and "pay."

ἀπὸ [190 verses]​(prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause. It also means the instrument "by" which a thing is done. Referring to time, it means "from," and "after."  Usually takes the genitive object. As a prefix, means "asunder," "completing," "ceasing,"  "back again," and "by way of abuse."-

τοῦ [821 verses](article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."  --

δεσμοῦ [1 verse] (noun sg masc gen) "Bond" is desmos, which means "band", "bond", "anything for tying and fastening",  "connection", "imprisonment", "spell" and "charm".

τούτου  [154 verses](adj sg masc gen) "This"is toutos, (touto, toutou)which means "from here," "from there," "this [thing] there," or "that [person] here." In the neuter plural form, it is often used as the object of the verb to means "these things."

τῇ [821 verses](article sg  fem dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").   It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἡμέρᾳ [96 verses] (noun sg fem dat) "Day" is hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life," "a time (poetic)," "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet," "tame (animals)," "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

τοῦ[821 verses](article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."  

σαββάτου; [17 verses](noun sg masc gen)  "Sabbath " is from sabbaton, which means "Sabbath," "seven days of week," and "first day of week."

Wordplay: 

The statement points out the woman and her situation before making a more general statement about nullifying the law of the Sabbath. 

Front Page Date: 

Aug 15 2024