Matthew 9:17 Neither do men put new wine

KJV Verse: 

Matthew 9:17 Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Neither do they pour fresh wine into used wineskins. Lest, however, in case the skins burst by themselves and not only does the wine pour itself out, but the skins also demolish themselves. So, the pour new wine into new wineskins so both are preserved.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse provides a contrast to the previous verse Matthew 9:16, in a way that clarifies them both. These verses do not express the same idea but opposing but compatible ideas. The previous verse describes people do not do and why, while this verse describes people do and why. In comparing it to parallel verses in Mark 2:22 and Luke 5:37, it is much longer and more detailed. 

"Neither" is from a Greek negative meaning "but not" and as both parts of "neither...nor." It can also be translated as "not at all."

The word translated as "do they put" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." However, it also specifically means "pour" when applied to liquids. A related word was used in the previous verse with the sense of "tossed on".

The Greek word translated as "new" in this verse actually does mean "new," unlike the word translated as "new" in the previous verse (Matthew 9:16) which means "unfinished." However, it still doesn't mean "new" in the sense of store purchased good are "new", that is, ready to use. It means "freshly made".

The word translated as "wine" means "wine" or any fermented juice. Wine, however, is Christ's metaphor for mental thought, as a drink affecting the mind. It is a metaphor for ideas that affect the mind. The word "to drink" also means "to celebrate".

Note: "new wine" here is a parallel to the "patch of unfinished remnant" in the previous verse, Matthew 9:16. However, unlike the previous verse where the patch was described negatively, this wine isn't bad. It will, however, get better with age. As in the last verse, "new" does not mean "good" here, but something unfinished.

The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction and "up to" limits in time and measure.

The word translated as "old" means old in years both in a good sense and a bad one. In a good sense, it means "venerable" and in a bad sense, "obsolete." It is the same term used to describe the clothing in the last verse. In the previous verse, the reference seems positive because the concern is for preserving the cloak. That is also a concern here: preserving the skins.

The term translated as "bottles" means "skins", and describes the leather containers, wine skins, used for wine used in Christ's time. The problem with updating the terms to bottles is that the analogy not longer works. The word also means "human skin" and is a clear metaphor for the container of ideas: human beings with minds.

New wine skins are more elastic than old ones and can deal with the gas given off by new wine, which hasn't stopped fermenting. New skins can expand. Old ones have already been stretched out and become less pliable. Notice that in the previous verse, there is no similar comparison of new and old because the adjectives are applied to different things, not the same things.

The English word "else" comes from three Greek words. The first is usually translated as "if." express a condition but it means nothing regarding whether that condition is met or not. The second is usually Greek word translated as "but," and joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. The third is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion.

Again, the term translated as "bottles" means "skins, and describes the leather containers, wine skins, used for wine used in Christ's time. The problem with updating the terms to bottles is that the analogy not longer works. Old bottles do not burst like old wineskins do. The word also means "human skin" and is a clear metaphor for the container of philosophy: human beings.

The word translated as "break" means to "burst" or "break through," in the active form. The form denotes the subject being acted on by themselves: "they burst by themselves". The metaphor is for systems of thought that fall apart because they cannot adapt to new ideas.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in a series here.

The Greek word translated as "runneth out" means "to pour out," and "spill," but it is a metaphor for "to be forgotten" and to be "overcome with emotion." Old philosophies are replaced, not updated because old believers are emotionally attached to the old ideas. Again, the form of the verb is something acting on itself, "pour out by themselves".

This is where the "but also" part of the conjunction comes in.

Again, the term translated as "bottles" means "skins, and describes the leather containers, wine skins, used as a metaphor here for followers of a philosophy.

The word translated as "perish" means to destroy or demolish. Again, the form indicates that they act on themselves, "they destroy themselves". Notice how the loss of these old skins in considered a waste as much as the loss of the new wine. This is different than the previous verse, where the only concern was the cloak.

The Greek word translated as "but" denote an exception or simple opposition. "Still" or "however" work well when the word isn't being used as a conjunction, especially when it begins a sentence.

The word translated as "do they put" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss," but it also means "pour," which fits here.

The words translated as "new wine" are exactly the same as those above.

The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction and "up to" limits in time and measure.

The word translated as "new" to describe the wine skins is different than that used to describe the wine. Many of their meanings overlap, but this word also means "of a new kind." It is chosen because the wine skins are a metaphor for Christ's followers, who are not just newly made but of a new kind.

Again, the term translated as "bottles" means "skins, and describes the leather containers, wine skins, used as a metaphor here for followers of a philosophy.

Here we have the final "and" introducing the phrase which is the point of the verse.

The word translated as "both" means "both sides" and "both ways" as well as "both together." It is chosen because unlike the common word for "both," it implies two different ways or sides together. Note that the "both" means the new wine and the new wineskins. The ideas could be

The word translated as "are preserved" means "to keep" and "to maintain," but it also means "to observe strictly," referring again, to philosophies.

Greek Vocabulary: 

οὐδὲ (adv/conj) "Neither" is from oude , which means "but not", "neither", "nor,"and "not even." As an adverb, it meams "not at all" and "not even."

βάλλουσιν (3rd pl pres ind act) "Do men put" is from ballo, which means "to throw", "to let fall," "to cast," "to put", "to pour", "to place money on deposit", "push forward or in front [of animals]", "to shed", "to place", "to pay,"to throw [of dice,]" "to be lucky", "to fall", "to lay as foundation", "to begin to form", "to dash oneself with water," and "to bathe."

οἶνον (noun sg neut acc ) "Wine" is from oinos, which means "wine" and "fermented juice of any kind."

νέον (adj sg neut acc) "New" is from neos, which means "young", "youthful", "suited to a youth", "new", "fresh,". and as an adverb of time, "lately", "just now", "anew," and "afresh,"

εἰς (prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

ἀσκοὺς (noun pl masc acc) "Bottles" is from askos, which means "skin", "hide", "skin made into a bag", "wineskin", "belly", "paunch," and "human skin."

παλαιούς: (adj pl masc acc) "Old" is from palaios, which means "old in years," "ancient," (in a good sense) "venerable", "held in esteem," (in a bad way) "antiquated", "obsolete," and "in an old way."

"Else" is from three Greek words, εἰ δὲ μήγε, usually translated as "if however not"

εἰ (conj) The "ei" is usually translated as "if" from ei, which is the particle used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect questions, "whether." It also means "if ever", "in case," and "whenever." It is combined with various conjunctions to create derivative conditions.

δὲ (partic) The "de" is usually translated as "but" from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

μήγε (adv) The "not" is usually translated as "not" from me, (in the form of me ge) which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. The ge is another particle that acts as an intensifier, usually strengthening but, less commonly, lessening the emphasis on a word. Often italics are used in English to capture the sense of intensification.

ῥήγνυνται (3rd pl pres ind mp) "Break" is from rhegnumi, which means to "break asunder", "rend", "shatter", "break through," and, in the passive, to "break", "break asunder", "burst,""break forth".

οἱ ἀσκοί, (noun pl masc nom) "Bottles" is from askos, which means "skin", "hide", "skin made into a bag", "wineskin", "belly", "paunch," and "human skin."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

οἶνος (noun sg masc nom ) "Wine" is from oinos, which means "wine" and "fermented juice of any kind."

ἐκχεῖται (sg pres ind mp) "Runneth out" is from ekcheo, which means to "pour out", "pour away", " spill", "squander", "waste", "spread out", "throw down," and, as a metaphor, "to be cast away", "forgotten", "give oneself up to any emotion," and "to be overjoyed."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

οἱ ἀσκοὶ (noun pl masc nom) "Bottles" is from askos, which means "skin", "hide", "skin made into a bag", "wineskin", "belly", "paunch," and "human skin."

ἀπόλλυνται: (3rd pl pres ind mp) "Perish" is from apollymi, which means "to demolish", "to lay waste", "to lose", "to perish", "to die", "to cease to exist," and "to be undone."

ἀλλὰ (adv/conj) "But" is from alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay." It is a form of the word "other".

βάλλουσιν (verb 3rd pl pres ind act) "They put" is from ballo, which means "to throw", "to let fall," "to cast," "to put", "to pour", "to place money on deposit", "push forward or in front [of animals]", "to shed", "to place", "to pay,"to throw [of dice,]" "to be lucky", "to fall", "to lay as foundation", "to begin to form", "to dash oneself with water," and "to bathe."

οἶνον (noun sg neut acc) "Wine" is from oinos, which means "wine" and "fermented juice of any kind."

νέον (adj sg neut acc) "New" is from neos, which means "young", "youthful", "suited to a youth", "new", "fresh,". and as an adverb of time, "lately", "just now", "anew," and "afresh,"

εἰς (prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

ἀσκοὺς (noun pl masc acc) "Bottles" is from askos, which means "skin", "hide", "skin made into a bag", "wineskin", "belly", "paunch," and "human skin."

καινούς, (adj pl masc acc) "New" is from kainos, which means "new", "fresh", "newly made", "newly invented," and "novel."

καὶ (conj)"And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

ἀμφότεροι (adj pl masc nom ) "Both" is from amphoteroi, which means "either", "both of two", "both together", "towards both sides", "both ways", "on both sides," and "all together."

συντηροῦνται (3rd pl pres ind mp) "Are preserved" comes from syntereo, which means to "keep", "preserve", "maintain", "observe strictly", "watch one's opportunity", "watch over," and "protect."

Wordplay: 

 The words here refer both to wine and to philosophy, for which it is a metaphor.
The word used for "wine skins," but it also means "human skin," representing people who follow a philosophy.
The word translated as "pour out" also means "to be overcome by emotion" as emotions pours out of people.
The word translated as "new" when applied to wine skins (but not the wine) means "of a new kind", referring to the new followers.
The word translated as "both" refers to "both sides" referring to Christianity and Judaism.
The word translated as "are preserved" also means "to observe strictly," referring again, to both religions.  

Related Verses: 

May 10 2017