Matthew 20:23 You shall drink indeed of my cup,

KJV Verse: 

Mat 20:23 Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

You certainly are going to drink (celebrate) my cup (offering). However, the seating out from my right (fortunate) and out from my left (honored) is not mine to offer, but it has already prepared itself for him by my Father.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

As in the previous verse, Mat 20:22, the section about "baptism" does not appear in the source we use today. It is interesting to note the the word for "left" did not have the "sinister" (the Latin word) nature it acquired later, but was from a term from "favored" or "honored" in the Greek.

Christ commonly makes statements like this, where he clearly separates himself, his will, and his power from that of the Father.

KJV Analysis: 

The word for "You shall drink" has a double meaning, "to drink" also means "to celebrate."

The word translated as "indeed" is expresses certainty and means "indeed", "certainly", "surely," and "truly."

The word for "cup", it means "a drinking-cup", "a wine-cup", "a jar," and "a receptacle" for offerings in the temple.

The Greek preposition translated as "on" usually means "out of" of "from." It has more of a sense "from" that position and "beyond" it than the English "on" does.

The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

The word for "to sit" means both to "seat" or "place" someone in a position and to "sit" and take a seat. It also has a number of special meanings. Here, it appears in the form of a noun introduced by an article. In English, we might say "the seating."

The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" of "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

The word for "right" is plural. As an adjective, it means "right" but has a number of other positive meanings including "fortunate" and "skillful."

The word for "left" is also plural. It primarily means "of good name", "honored," and similar positive things, and is only a euphemism for "left" and "bad omens."

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact, in fact, which is captured in English with adverbs like "really."

The word translated as "give" is the common word for "give" in Greek, but it has a number of special uses that our word does not have, including "to forgive", "to offer," and so on.

The "but" used here is a different word than the "however" aboe, used more like our word "but.

To "it shall be given to them for whom" is from one word that means "to or for them".

The word translated as "it is prepared" means to "get ready," "prepare", "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." It is in the perfect tense, meaning an action completed in the past, so this has been done already. It is also not in the passive, as translated, but in a form where the subject acts on itself, "it has already prepared itself."

The word translated as "of" primarily means "by", "under," or "with" (with the genitive and a passive verb). Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion. It has the sense of something being done under the power of someone.

"Father" is the common word that Christ uses to address his own father, though it can mean any male ancestor. It is in the genitive form (see word above).

Greek Vocabulary: 

Τὸ (article sg neut acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one."

μὲν "Indeed" is from men, which is generally used to express certainty and means "indeed", "certainly", "surely," and "truly."

ποτήριόν (noun sg neut acc) "Cup" is from poterion, which means "a drinking-cup", "a wine-cup", "a jar," and "a receptacle" for offerings in the temple.

μου (noun sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

πίεσθε, (verb 2nd pl fut ind mid) "Ye shall drink" is from pinô (pino), which means "to drink", "to celebrate," and "soak up."

τὸ (article sg neut acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun but here is separated by the conjunction below.

δὲ "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

καθίσαι (verb aor inf act) "To sit" is from kathizô, which means "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint", "to establish", "to put in a certain condition", "to reside", "to sink down", "to run aground [for ships]," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." From the Greek kata ("down") hedraios ("to settle") .

ἐκ "On" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

δεξιῶν (adj pl fem gen) "Right" is from dexios, which means, as an adjective, "on the right hand", "fortunate", "skillful", "ready", "clever", "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

μου (noun sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐξ "From" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

εὐωνύμων (adj pl masc gen) "Left " is from euonymos, which means "of good name", "honored", "expressed in well-chosen terms", "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left", "on the left hand," and "bad omens."

οὐκ "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἔστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

ἐμὸν (adj sg masc/neut nom/acc) "Mine" is from emou, which means "me", and "mine".

δοῦναι, (verb aor inf act) "To give" is from didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "give freely", "to be ready to give," "offer," "appoint", "establish," "grant" another to one's entreaties, "pardon" at one's request, "forgive" one a thing, "condone." "concede" in argument, "give oneself up," "devote oneself," of the laws, "grant permission," and "to describe."

​​​​​​ ἀλλ᾽ "But" is from alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay." -- The Greek word translated as "but" denote an exception or simple opposition. "Still" or "however" work well when the word isn't being used as a conjunction, especially when it begins a sentence.

οἷς (pron pl masc/acc dat) "it shall be given to them for whom" is from hos, which means "him", "her," or, in the plural, "them." It is a for which means "to, for, or by" the person.

ἡτοίμασται (verb 3rd sg perf ind mp) "It is prepared" is from hetoimazô, which means to "get ready," "prepare", "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." In the passive, it means to "prepare for oneself," "prepare oneself," "make oneself ready," and "to be prepared."

ὑπὸ "Of" is from hypo (hupo), which means [with genitive] "from under (of motion)", "down under," under, beneath," indicating a cause with passive verbs, "by", "under," or "with", "under the cover or protection of", "of the agency of feelings, passions," "expressing subjection or dependence," "subordinate", "subject to;" [with accusative] "towards" and "under" (to express motion), "under" (without a sense of motion), "subjection", "control", "dependence," of Time, "in the course of", "during", "about," as an adverb, "under", "below," beneath, the agency or influence under which a thing is done"by", "before,' and "under," (with genitive and passive verbs of cause).

τοῦ πατρός (noun sg masc gen) "The Father" is from pater, which means "father", "grandfather", "author", "parent," and "forefathers."

μου. (noun sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

Wordplay: 

The word "drink" also means "celebrate."

The word "right" means "lucky."

The word "left" means "honored".

The idea of drinking from a cup of suffering (in the previous verse, Mat 20:22) is clearly turned around into a celebration. 

The Spoken Version: 

You will really celebrate my offering. Still, the seating arrangements for the lucky and honored are not mine to hand out. This has, however, been prepared for him by my Father.

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