Mark 10:40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine...

KJV Verse: 

Mark 10:40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

The, however, sitting on a right of mine or on a left not is mine to give but for those it has been readied.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The term "hand" is not actually used but implied by the use of the terms "right" and "left." These terms are separated by an "or," which is required by the very different implications of being seated at the two sides;

KJV Analysis: 

But -- The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

untranslated - . The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

to -- This is from the infinitive form of rhe following verb, but when preceded by an article, an infinitive acts like a noun describing an the action.

sit -- -- "Sit" is a Greek verb  "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint",  and "to establish". The form is an infinitive that acts like a noun describing the action when preceded by an article.

on -- The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" or "from." In also means "on"<when referring to place.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

right -- "Right" is an adjective that means, as an adjective, "on the right hand", "fortunate", "skillful", "ready", "clever", "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

hand - The Greek word for hand does not appear in the source. It is assumed or implied bu the previous word.

and -- "And" is translated from a Greek word that means primary "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

on -- The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" or "from." In also means "on"<when referring to place.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

left -- "Left" is an adjective that  means "of good name", "honored", "expressed in well-chosen terms", "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left", "on the left hand," and "bad omens."

hand - The Greek word for hand does not appear in the source. It is assumed or implied bu the previous word.

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

mine --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

to --  This is from the inifinitive form of the following verb.

give; -- The verb translated as "given" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

but -- The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise".

it shall be given --  None of these words exist in the Greek. They are perhaps implied by the form of the "but."

to -- This is from the form of the following article and verbal adjective as indirect objects.

them -- The word translated as "them" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.  The sense is more "those" than a simple "them."

for whom -- These words could be a restatement of the previous word.

it -- This reflects the third-person singular from of the following verb.  The  form refers to the either the "right" or the "left."

is -- This reflects that passive form of the verb. However, it seems to indicate that the tense of the verb is the present. It is the past perfect so "has been" is much more accurate.

prepared. -- "Prepared" is from hetoimazô (hetoimazo), which means "to get ready", "to be prepared," and "to cause to be prepared." In the passive (as here), it means "to be prepared."

 

Greek Vocabulary: 

τὸ (article) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."--

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

καθίσαι ( verb aor inf act ) "Sit" is kathizo, which means "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to recline at meals," and "to settle."

ἐκ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

δεξιῶν ( noun pl fem gen ) "Right" is dexios, which means, as an adjective, "on the right hand", "fortunate", "skillful", "ready", "clever", "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

μου (noun sg masc gen) "My" is emou, which means "me", and "mine".

(conj/adv)  "Abd" is e which is a particle meaning "either", "or," or "than." OR (exclam) "Or" is e which is an exclamation meaning "hi!" OR (adv) "Or" is e, which is an adverb meaning "in truth" and "of a surety".

ἐξ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

εὐωνύμων  ( adj pl masc/fem/neut gen ) "Left hand" is euonymos, which means "of good name", "honored", "expressed in well-chosen terms", "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left", "on the left hand," and "bad omens."

οὐκ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἔστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen",  and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

ἐμὸν (noun sg masc gen) "My" is emou, which means "me", and "mine".

δοῦναι, ( verb aor inf act ) "Will give" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe."

ἀλλ᾽ (adv) "But" is alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay."

οἷς ( pron pl masc dat ) "For whom" is from hos (hos), which is the demonstrative pronoun in its various forms (hê, ho, gen. hou, hês, hou, etc. ; dat. pl. hois, hais, hois, etc. gen. hoou). It means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

ἡτοίμασται (verb 3rd sg perf ind mp) "Prepared" is from hetoimazo, which means to "get ready," "prepare", "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." 

 

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Symbolically, the terms "right hand" and "left hand" both mean "fortunate" and are similar concepts when discussing seating. After all, if you are seated to someone's right, they are seated to your left. Christ describes himself as being seated at the right hand of power, which means that power is on his left. Conceptually, this means the Christ doesn't sit at the most honored place.

However, On the "right," means having skills and being kindly. While the concept of being on the "left" has negative connotations in Greek and Aramaic, the word used here, euônumos, actually means "of good name" and "honored," and is just a euphemism for the idea of "left." The Greek term that means "left" that has all the negative connotations is aristeros, a different word.

Oct 23 2019