Mark 10:40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine...

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

The, however, sitting on a right of mine or on a left is not mine to give but for those it has been readied.

KJV : 

Mark 10:40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The NLT version of this verse can hardly be called a translation at all. It is more like an interpretation or explanation. The meaning of the Greek words is ignored and intentionally mistranslated. Most of the words in the NLT translation do not exist in and are not otherwise justified by the source Greek. The NIV verse gets a little closer than the KJV and neither of them ignores the Greek.

NIV : 

Mark 10:40 but to sit at my right or left is not for me to grant. These places belong to those for whom they have been prepared

NLT : 

Mark 10:40 But I have no right to say who will sit on my right or my left. God has prepared those places for the ones he has chosen.”

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Symbolically, the terms "right hand" and "left hand" both mean "fortunate" and are similar concepts when discussing seating. After all, if you are seated to someone's right, they are seated to your left. Christ describes himself as being seated at the right hand of power, which means that power is on his left. Conceptually, this means the Christ doesn't sit at the most honored place.

However, On the "right," means having skills and being kindly. While the concept of being on the "left" has negative connotations in Greek and Aramaic, the word used here, euônumos, actually means "of good name" and "honored," and is just a euphemism for the idea of "left." The Greek term that means "left" that has all the negative connotations is aristeros, a different word.

Greek Vocabulary: 

τὸ (article) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."--

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

καθίσαι ( verb aor inf act ) "Sit" is kathizo, which means "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to recline at meals," and "to settle."

ἐκ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

δεξιῶν ( noun pl fem gen ) "Right" is dexios, which means, as an adjective, "on the right hand", "fortunate", "skillful", "ready", "clever", "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

μου (noun sg masc gen) "My" is emou, which means "me", and "mine".

(conj/adv)  "And" is e which is a particle meaning "either", "or," or "than." OR (exclam) "Or" is e which is an exclamation meaning "hi!" OR (adv) "Or" is e, which is an adverb meaning "in truth" and "of a surety".

ἐξ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

εὐωνύμων  ( adj pl masc/fem/neut gen ) "Left hand" is euonymos, which means "of good name", "honored", "expressed in well-chosen terms", "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left", "on the left hand," and "bad omens."

οὐκ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἔστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen",  and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

ἐμὸν (noun sg masc gen) "My" is emou, which means "me", and "mine".

δοῦναι, ( verb aor inf act ) "Will give" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe."

ἀλλ᾽ (adv) "But" is alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay."

οἷς ( pron pl masc dat ) "To them or for whom" is from hos (hos), which is the demonstrative pronoun in its various forms (hê, ho, gen. hou, hês, hou, etc. ; dat. pl. hois, hais, hois, etc. gen. hoou). It means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

ἡτοίμασται (verb 3rd sg perf ind mp) "Prepared" is from hetoimazo, which means to "get ready," "prepare", "make ready," and "to cause to prepare." 

KJV Analysis: 

But -- The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

untranslated - . (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

to -- This is from the infinitive form of rhe following verb, but when preceded by an article, an infinitive acts like a noun describing an the action. In English, we use a gerund, ending in "ing" for this purpose.

sit -- (WF) "Sit" is a Greek verb  "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint",  and "to establish". The form is an infinitive that acts like a noun describing the action when preceded by an article. In English, we would say "the sitting."

on -- The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" or "from." In also means "on"<when referring to place.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

right -- "Right" is an adjective that means, as an adjective, "on the right hand", "fortunate", "skillful", "ready", "clever", "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

hand - (IS) The Greek word for hand does not appear in the source. It is assumed or implied bu the previous word.

and --(WW) "And" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

on -- The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" or "from." In also means "on"<when referring to place.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

left -- "Left" is an adjective that  means "of good name", "honored", "expressed in well-chosen terms", "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left", "on the left hand," and "bad omens."

hand - (IW) The Greek word for hand does not appear in the source. It is assumed or implied bu the previous word.

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

mine --  "Mine" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

to --  This is from the infinitive form of the following verb.

give; -- The verb translated as "given" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

but -- The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise".

it shall be given --  (IP) None of these words exist in the Greek. They are perhaps implied by the form of the "but."

to -- This is from the form of the following article and verbal adjective as indirect objects.

them -- The word translated as "them" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.  The sense is more "those" than a simple "them."

for whom -- (IP)These words could be a restatement of the previous word.

it -- This reflects the third-person singular from of the following verb.  The  form refers to the either the "right" or the "left."

is -- (WT) This reflects that passive form of the verb. However, it seems to indicate that the tense of the verb is the present. It is the past perfect so "has been" is much more accurate.

prepared. -- "Prepared" is hetoimazo, which means "to get ready", "to be prepared," and "to cause to be prepared." In the passive (as here), it means "to be prepared."

KJV Translation Issues: 

7

MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.

WF - Wrong Form -  The "to sit" is work as an infinitive but a noun, "the sitting."

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "and" means "or."

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "hand" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

IP - Inserted Phrase -- The phrase "it shall be given" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

IP - Inserted Phrase -- The phrase "for whom" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WT - Wrong Tense - The "is prepared" should be "has been prepared, the perfect tense.

NIV Analysis: 

But -- The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

untranslated - . (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

to -- This is from the infinitive form of rhe following verb, but when preceded by an article, an infinitive acts like a noun describing an the action. In English, we use a gerund, ending in "ing" for this purpose.

sit -- (WF) "Sit" is a Greek verb  "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint",  and "to establish". The form is an infinitive that acts like a noun describing the action when preceded by an article. In English, we would say "the sitting."

on -- The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" or "from." In also means "on"<when referring to place.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

right -- "Right" is an adjective that means, as an adjective, "on the right hand", "fortunate", "skillful", "ready", "clever", "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

or -- "Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

on -- The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" or "from." In also means "on"<when referring to place.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

left -- "Left" is an adjective that  means "of good name", "honored", "expressed in well-chosen terms", "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left", "on the left hand," and "bad omens."

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

for - This word "for"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

me --  "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

to --  This is from the infinitive form of the following verb.

grant; -- The verb translated as "grant" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

but -- (MW)  The untranslated Greek word is usually translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise".

These places belong --  (IP) None of these words exist in the Greek.

to -- This is from the form of the following article and verbal adjective as indirect objects.

those -- The word translated as "those" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.  The sense is more "those" than a simple "them."

for whom -- (IP)These words could be a restatement of the previous word.

it -- This reflects the third-person singular from of the following verb.  The  form refers to the either the "right" or the "left."

is -- (WT) This reflects that passive form of the verb. However, it seems to indicate that the tense of the verb is the present. It is the past perfect so "has been" is much more accurate.

prepared. -- "Prepared" is hetoimazo, which means "to get ready", "to be prepared," and "to cause to be prepared." In the passive (as here), it means "to be prepared."

NIV Translation Issues: 

5

MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.

WF - Wrong Form -  The "to sit" is work as an infinitive but a noun, "the sitting."

IP - Inserted Phrase -- The phrase "These places belong" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

IP - Inserted Phrase -- The phrase "for whom" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WT - Wrong Tense - The "is prepared" should be "has been prepared, the perfect tense.

NLT Analysis: 

But -- The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

I --  (WF) "I" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

have -- (WW) The verb "have" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

no -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

right -- (IW) There is no word that can be translated as "right" in the Greek.

to -  This is from the infinitive form of the following verb.

say -- (WW)  The verb translated as "say" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

who -- The word translated as "who"  is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

will -- (WW) The following verb in not the future tense nor an active verb so this should be a "to", but when preceded by an article, an infinitive acts like a noun describing an the action. In English, we use a gerund, ending in "ing" for this purpose.

sit -- (WF) "Sit" is a Greek verb  "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint",  and "to establish". The form is an infinitive that acts like a noun describing the action when preceded by an article. In English, we would say "the sitting."

on -- The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" or "from." In also means "on"<when referring to place.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

right -- "Right" is an adjective that means, as an adjective, "on the right hand", "fortunate", "skillful", "ready", "clever", "courteous," and "kindly." As a noun, it means the "right hand," "assurance", "pledge", "treaty,"

or -- "Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

on -- The Greek preposition translated as "on" means "out of" or "from." In also means "on"<when referring to place.

my --  "My" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the possessive form, so "my" or "of me".

left -- "Left" is an adjective that  means "of good name", "honored", "expressed in well-chosen terms", "prosperous," and "fortunate." It is a euphemism for "left", "on the left hand," and "bad omens."

untranslated -- (MW)  The untranslated Greek word is usually translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise".

God -- (IW)  The word "God" doesn't exist in the source. Nor is it the subject of the verb, which is passive, not active.

has -- This helping verb "has" indicates that the following verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past.

prepared -- (WV) "Prepared" is hetoimazo, which means "to get ready", "to be prepared," and "to cause to be prepared." In the passive (as here), it means "to be prepared."

those places --  (IP) None of these words exist in the Greek. A previous object can be assumed for following verbs, but this verb is passive, not active.

for -- This is from the form of the following article and verbal adjective as indirect objects.

the ones -- The word translated as "those" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.  The sense is more "those" than a simple "them."

for whom -- (IP)These words could be a restatement of the previous word.

he has chosen.   (IP) None of these words exist in the Greek.

NLT Translation Issues: 

13

WF - Wrong Form -  The "I" pronoun is not in the form of a subject but a genitive "of me" or "for me."

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "have" means "is."

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "right" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "say" means "give."

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "will" should be "to" with the infinitive or "the" with the gerund.

WF - Wrong Form -  The verb "sit" is not an active verb, but an infinitive that acts like a noun because it is introduced by an article, "the sitting."

MS -- Missing Word - The conjunction "but" is not translated.

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "God" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

IP - Inserted Phrase -- The phrase "those places" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WV - Wrong Voice - The "is prepared"in the active voice should be "has been prepared," the passive voice.

IP - Inserted Phrase -- The phrase "for whom" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

IP - Inserted Phrase -- The phrase "he has chosen" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

Front Page Date: 

Oct 23 2019