Mark 10:42 You know that they which are accounted to rule...

KJV Verse: 

Mark 10:42 You know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

You have seen those imagining to rule over those foreigners. They lord over them and those strong of theirs have power over them.

 

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse has a wealth of wordplay and subtle meaning in the Greek that is lost in English translation. Verses such as this are strong indications that Jesus taught in Greek because this wordplay simply doesn't work in Aramaic.

The Greek is a lot more concise than the translation and a lot more humorous. The phrase translation as "they which are accounted to rule" is much closer to "those imagining to rule," which expresses their authority as something of a delusion.

The two words translated as "exercise lordship" and "exercise authority" are unique in Jesus's words. Both begin with the word that means "down,"carrying the idea being above and looking down on others. In English, we say that someone "rules over" others, but in Greek, these two words carry the idea of "ruling down" and "using power down" on others. These particular words are only used here and in the corresponding verse in Matthew. Again, the choice of these particular words is a bit too perfect to be simple translation. There are many words that mean rule in Greek that don't begin with the idea of "down," but because these do, they fits wonderfully with the following verses about real leaders being beneath others rather than over them.

KJV Analysis: 

You --  This is from the third-person, plural form of the following verb.

know -- The verb translated as "knowe" means "to see" but it is used like we use the word "see" to mean "to know" or "to perceive."

that -- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

they -- The word translated as "they which" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

which -- This seems to indicate a subordinate clause, but there is not such clause in the Greek. There is ony a verb in the form of an adjective.

are -- This verb seems to indicate a passive verb, but the verb is not passive. It is active in the form of a adjective.

accounted -- The word translated as "accounted" means "expect," "reputed," or "imagine." When Jesus uses it, "imagine" seems to work the most often in English. The form is an adjective, "imagining."

to -- This is from the infinitive form of the following verb.

rule -- "To rule" is a verb means "to be first", "to begin", "to make a beginning", "to rule", "to govern," and "to command."

over --  "Over" is from the form of the following article and noun. The form of this word requires that addition of extra words in English to capture its meaning.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns.  However, in English, we say "rule over."

the-- The word translated as "the" [The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Gentiles -- The word translated as "gentiles" generally refers to everyone who is not a Jew. We might say "foreigner." The word is the source of our word "ethnic."

exercise lordship -- "Excise lordship" is a verb that Jesus only uses here. It means "to gain or exercise complete dominion." Its root is the Greek word translated as "lord" or "master." This carries the sense of ownership and control. It literally means "lord down."

over --  "Over" is from the form of the following pronoun. The form of this word requires that addition of extra words in English to capture its meaning.   In English, we say "lord over."

them; -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English. 

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

their -- The word translated as "their" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  It follows the noun so the sense is more "of them."

great -- The word translated as "great" means "big", "high" "great," and "impressive."

ones -- The "ones" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

exercise authority -- This is another rare word for Jesus and in ancient Greek. It appears first here and in that parallel in Matthew.

upon -- This is again from the form of the following pronoun, which is translated as "over" above.

them. -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  

 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Οἴδατε ( verb 2nd pl perf ind act ) "Know" is eido which means "to see", "to examine", "to perceive", "to behold", "to know how to do", "to see with the mind's eye," and "to know."

ὅτι (adv/conj) "That" is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "They which" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

δοκοῦντες ( part pl pres act masc nom ) "Are accounted for" is dokeo, which means "expect", "suppose", "imagine", "have an opinion", "seem", "seem good," and "to be reputed."

ἄρχειν ( verb pres inf act ) "To rule" is from archo, which means "to be first", "to begin", "to make a beginning", "to rule", "to govern," and "to command."

τῶν (article pl neut gen ) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἐθνῶν ( noun pl neut gen ) "Gentiles" is ethnikos, which means "national", "provincial", "foriegn," and "gentile." It was used in the same way we would describe someone as an "ethnic" or "foreigner." Foreigners, the Greeks and Romans, were the rulers of the nation in Christ's time.

κατακυριεύουσιν [unique}( verb 3rd pl pres ind act ) "Excise lordship" is katakyrieuo, which means "to gain or exercise complete dominion." This carries the sense of ownership and control.

αὐτῶν ( adj pl masc gen ) "Over them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "Ones" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

μεγάλοι   (adjective pl masc nom) "Great" is megas, which means "big", "full-grown", "vast", "high", "great", "mighty", "strong (of the elements)","loud" (of sounds), "over-great (with a bad sense), "impressive" (of style), and "long" ( of days).

αὐτῶν ( adj pl masc gen ) "Their" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

κατεξουσιάζουσιν  [unique]( verb 3rd pl pres ind act )  "Exercise authority" is katexousiazo, which means "to have power", "to exercise power," and "to be the master of a body."

αὐτῶν. ( adj pl masc gen ) "Over them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

Wordplay: 

Here, Jesus makes up to words which are very like the way we say things in our day, "lord over" and "decide against." 

Related Verses: 

Oct 24 2019