Mark 10:42 You know that they which are accounted to rule...

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

You have seen those imagining to rule over the foreigners: they lord over them and those great of theirs have power over them.

KJV : 

Mark 10:42 You know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse has a wealth of wordplay and subtle meaning in the Greek that is lost in English translation. Verses such as this are strong indications that Jesus taught in Greek because this wordplay simply doesn't work in Aramaic.

The Greek is a lot more concise than the translation and a lot more humorous. The phrase translation as "they which are accounted to rule" is much closer to "those imagining to rule," which expresses their authority as something of a delusion.

The two words translated as "exercise lordship" and "exercise authority" are unique in Jesus's words. Both begin with the word that means "down,"carrying the idea being above and looking down on others. In English, we say that someone "rules over" others, but in Greek, these two words carry the idea of "ruling down" and "using power down" on others. These particular words are only used here and in the corresponding verse in Matthew. Again, the choice of these particular words is a bit too perfect to be simple translation. There are many words that mean rule in Greek that don't begin with the idea of "down," but because these do, they fits wonderfully with the following verses about real leaders being beneath others rather than over them.

NIV : 

Mark 10:42 You know that those who are regarded as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials exercise authority over them.

NLT : 

Mark 10:42 You know that the rulers in this world lord it over their people, and officials flaunt their authority over those under them.

Wordplay: 

Here, Jesus makes up to words which are very like the way we say things in our day, "lord over" and "decide against." 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Οἴδατε ( verb 2nd pl perf ind act ) "Know" is eido which means "to see", "to examine", "to perceive", "to behold", "to know how to do", "to see with the mind's eye," and "to know."

ὅτι (adv/conj) "That" is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "They which" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

δοκοῦντες ( part pl pres act masc nom ) "Are accounted for" is dokeo, which means "expect", "suppose", "imagine", "have an opinion", "seem", "seem good," and "to be reputed."

ἄρχειν ( verb pres inf act ) "To rule" is from archo, which means "to be first", "to begin", "to make a beginning", "to rule", "to govern," and "to command."

τῶν (article pl neut gen ) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἐθνῶν ( noun pl neut gen ) "Gentiles" is ethnikos, which means "national", "provincial", "foriegn," and "gentile." It was used in the same way we would describe someone as an "ethnic" or "foreigner." Foreigners, the Greeks and Romans, were the rulers of the nation in Christ's time.

κατακυριεύουσιν [unique}( verb 3rd pl pres ind act ) "Excise lordship" is katakyrieuo, which means "to gain or exercise complete dominion." This carries the sense of ownership and control.

αὐτῶν ( adj pl masc gen ) "Over them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "Ones" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

μεγάλοι   (adjective pl masc nom) "Great" is megas, which means "big", "full-grown", "vast", "high", "great", "mighty", "strong (of the elements)","loud" (of sounds), "over-great (with a bad sense), "impressive" (of style), and "long" ( of days).

αὐτῶν ( adj pl masc gen ) "Their" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

κατεξουσιάζουσιν  [2 verses]( verb 3rd pl pres ind act )  "Exercise authority" is katexousiazo, which means "to have power", "to exercise power," and "to be the master of a body."

αὐτῶν. ( adj pl masc gen ) "Over them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

KJV Analysis: 

You --  This is from the third-person, plural form of the following verb.

know -- The verb translated as "know" means "to see" but it is used like we use the word "see" to mean "to know" or "to perceive."

that -- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

they -- The word translated as "they" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

which -- (IW) This seems to indicate a subordinate clause, but there is no such clause in the Greek. There is ony a verb in the form of an adjective.

are -- (WF) This verb seems to indicate a passive verb, but the verb is not passive. It is active in the form of a adjective.

accounted -- (WW, WF) The word translated as "accounted" means "expect," "reputed," or "imagine." When Jesus uses it, "imagine" seems to work the most often in English. The form is an adjective, "imagining." The particle introduced by an article has the sense of "the ones imagining."

to -- This is from the infinitive form of the following verb.

rule -- "To rule" is a verb means "to be first", "to begin", "to make a beginning", "to rule", "to govern," and "to command."

over --  "Over" is from the form of the following article and noun. The form of this word requires that addition of extra words in English to capture its meaning.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns.  However, in English, we say "rule over."

the-- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Gentiles -- The word translated as "gentiles" generally refers to everyone who is not a Jew. We might say "foreigner." The word is the source of our word "ethnic."

exercise lordship -- "Excise lordship" is a verb that Jesus only uses here. It means "to gain or exercise complete dominion." Its root is the Greek word translated as "lord" or "master." This carries the sense of ownership and control. It literally means "lord down."

over --  This is from the prefix that means "down"of the previous verb and from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

them; -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English. 

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

their -- The word translated as "their" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  It follows the noun so the sense is more "of them."

great -- The word translated as "great" means "big", "high" "great," and "impressive."

ones -- The "ones" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

exercise authority -- This is another rare word for Jesus and in ancient Greek. It means "to have power", "to exercise authority," and "to be the master of a body." It appears only here and in the parallel in Matthew.

upon -- This is again from the prefix of the following verb, meaning "down" and from form of the following pronoun, which is translated as "over" above.

them. -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English. 

KJV Translation Issues: 

4

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "which" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WF - Wrong Form -  The "are accounted" is not a passive verb but an active one.

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "accounted" means "expecting," seeming," and "imagining"

WF - Wrong Form -  The "accounted" is not an active verb in a past tense but a participle, in the present tense "accounting" except the word doesn't mean "accounting."

NIV Analysis: 

You --  This is from the third-person, plural form of the following verb.

know -- The verb translated as "know" means "to see" but it is used like we use the word "see" to mean "to know" or "to perceive."

that -- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

those-- The word translated as "they" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

who-- (IW) This seems to indicate a subordinate clause, but there is no such clause in the Greek. There is ony a verb in the form of an adjective.

are -- (WF) This verb seems to indicate a passive verb, but the verb is not passive. It is active in the form of a adjective.

regarded -- (WF) The word translated as "accounted" means "expect," "reputed," or "imagine." When Jesus uses it, "imagine" seems to work the most often in English. The form is an adjective, "imagining." The particle introduced by an article has the sense of "the ones imagining."

as -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "as" in the Greek source.

rulers -- (WF)  "Rules" is not a noun but  a verb means "to be first", "to begin", "to make a beginning", "to rule", "to govern," and "to command."

of -- "Of" is from the form of the following article. The form of this word requires that addition of extra words in English to capture its meaning.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns.  However, in English, we say "rule over."

the-- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Gentiles -- The word translated as "gentiles" generally refers to everyone who is not a Jew. We might say "foreigner." The word is the source of our word "ethnic."

lord -- Lord" is a verb that Jesus only uses here. It means "to gain or exercise complete dominion." Its root is the Greek word translated as "lord" or "master." This carries the sense of ownership and control. It literally means "lord down."

it -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

over --  This is from the prefix that means "down"of the previous verb and from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

them; -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

their -- The word translated as "their" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  It follows the noun so the sense is more "of them."

high -- The word translated as "high" means "big", "high" "great," and "impressive."

officials -- (WW) -- The "officials" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

exercise authority --- This is another rare word for Jesus and in ancient Greek. It means "to have power", "to exercise authority," and "to be the master of a body." It appears only here and in the parallel in Matthew.

 

over-- This is again from the prefix of the following verb, meaning "down" and from form of the following pronoun, which is translated as "over" above.

them. -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English. 

NIV Translation Issues: 

4

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WF - Wrong Form -  The "rulers" is not a ruler but a verb, "to rule."

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "it" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "officials" means "the ones."

NLT Analysis: 

You --  This is from the third-person, plural form of the following verb.

know -- The verb translated as "know" means "to see" but it is used like we use the word "see" to mean "to know" or "to perceive."

that -- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

the-- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word means "expect," "reputed," or "imagine." When Jesus uses it, "imagine" seems to work the most often in English. The form is an adjective, "imagining." The particle introduced by an article has the sense of "the ones imagining."

rulers -- (WF)  "Rules" is not a noun but  a verb means "to be first", "to begin", "to make a beginning", "to rule", "to govern," and "to command."

in -- (WW) "In" is from the form of the following article. The form of this word requires that addition of extra words in English to capture its meaning.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns.  However, in English, we say "rule over."

this - The word translated as "this" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

world -- (WW) The word translated as "world" is usually translated as "gentiles" and generally refers to everyone who is not a Jew. We might say "foreigner." The word is the source of our word "ethnic."

lord -- Lord" is a verb that Jesus only uses here. It means "to gain or exercise complete dominion." Its root is the Greek word translated as "lord" or "master." This carries the sense of ownership and control. It literally means "lord down."

it -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

over --  This is from the prefix that means "down"of the previous verb and from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

their -- The word translated as "their" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.

people, -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "people" in the Greek source.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

officials -- (WW) The word translated as "officials" means "big", "high" "great," and "impressive."

flaunt -- -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "flaunt" in the Greek source.

their -- The word translated as "their" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  It follows the noun so the sense is more "of them."

authority --  (WF) This is not a noun but a verb. It is another rare word for Jesus and in ancient Greek. It means "to have power", "to exercise authority," and "to be the master of a body." It appears only here and in the parallel in Matthew.

over-- This is again from the prefix of the following verb, meaning "down" and from form of the following pronoun, which is translated as "over" above.

those. -- The word translated as "those" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.

under them. --  (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "under them" in the Greek source unless we translated the previous words twice, two different ways.

NLT Translation Issues: 

12

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WF - Wrong Form -  The "rulers" is not a ruler but a verb, "to rule."

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "in" is from a word form that should be translated as "of."

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "world" means "gentiles" and "ethnics."

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "it" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "people" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "officials" means "the ones."

MW - Missing Word -- The pronoun "their" is not shown in the English translation.

IW - Inserted Word -- The verb "flaunt" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

WW - Wrong Word -- The verb translated as "authority" means "have authority."

IW - Inserted Word -- The phrase "under them" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified. It is a repeat of the previous phrase.,

Front Page Date: 

Oct 24 2019