Luke 11:51 From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias,

KJV Verse: 

Luk 11:51 From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

From blood of Abel until blood of Zachariah, the one destroyed between the altar and the house, yes, I tell you, it shall be demanded from a type. 

Hidden Meaning: 

The KJV loses the contrast between this verse and the previous one (Luke 11:50) because it changes the way it translated as a key verb so that its change of form, which gives this verse its "kick" is lost.  There is also a translation of a word as "temple" which is only done to make this version look more like Matthew.

The word translated as "from" means "from" referring to a location, a time, and a source. Here, it is a play on two meanings: the time and the source of the blood.

"Blood" is the Greek word that means "blood", "bloodshed," and "kinship. Christ uses it commonly with the double meaning of bloodshed and kinship. In the Greek, there is no article, so not "the blood" but simply "blood". 

Abel is the Hebrew name, not a Greek version, of the second son of Adam and Eve. The form is not a Greek word, but we can infer that it is possessive from the form of "righteous."

The word translated as "unto" means "until" but it also means "in order that." The clear meaning here is "until the time. "

"Blood" is from the Greek word that means "blood", "bloodshed," and "kinship. Christ uses it commonly with the double meaning of bloodshed and kinship.

"Zacharias" is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Zechariah. Unlike "Abel" it has a normal Greek word ending. There are three Zechariahs in the OT, 1) Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah."one of two witnesses to Isaiah's prophecy, 2) Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the minor prophet who wrote the book of the same name and Zechariah the son of Jehoiada, a priest who is slain in the book of Chronicles.

The "son of Barachiah" comment, which seems something of a joke in Matthew, does not appear here. 

The verb translated as "who perished" means to destroy or demolish. It is in the form of an adjective used as a noun, "the one destroyed".  In the Matthew version, this was a different verb meaning "to slay". 

The "between" the sense of "between" to parties to an agreement or discussion.

The word for "the altar" means "altar" but an altar wasn't a table in Christ's time. It was a grill with a fire under it for burning sacrifices. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

The Greek word translated as "temple," is almost always translated as "house" and means any dwelling place but not exclusively a separate house. It means the household or clan that lives in the building as well.  In the Matthew, the actual Greek word for "temple" is used. 

"Shall be required" is a Greek verb that means "to seek out" and "to demand an accounting of".  It is passive and in a form that indicates something that will happen. In the previous verse, the form was something that might happen. So this verse is a stronger restatement of the previous phrase. These two verses are the only use of this word by Jesus in the Bible. 

The word translated as "of" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source. It was translated as "from" earlier in the verse. 

The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. 

The word translated as "generation" means "race", "family", and "generation". The sense is a "type" or a "specimen" of a particular type.  Jesus uses this term frequently in criticism, but that criticism seems more aimed at a particular type of people than his generation. It is the word from which we get the scientific "genus".

 

Vocabulary: 

ἀπὸ (prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause. -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

αἵματος (noun sg neut gen) "The blood" is haima (haima), which means "blood," "streams of blood", "anything like blood," "spirit", "courage", "bloodshed", "murder", "blood relationship,"kin," and "kindship."

Ἅβελ {Aramiac] "Abel" is from Abelwhich is the Hebrew name for Adam's second son. It means "transitory" and is a metaphor for "vanity." As with most biblical names, it is not in the form of a Greek word.

ἕως (conj) "Unto" is heos which means "until", "till," and "in order that" and "up to the point that." -- The word translated as "until" means "until" but it also means "in order that."

αἵματος (noun sg neut gen) "The blood" is haima (haima), which means "blood," "streams of blood", "anything like blood," "spirit", "courage", "bloodshed", "murder", "blood relationship,"kin," and "kindship."

Ζαχαρίου (noun sg masc gen) "Zacharias" is from Zacharias, which is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Zechariah.

τοῦ ἀπολομένου (part sg aor mid masc gen) "Who perished" is apollymi, which means "to demolish", "to lay waste", "to lose", "to perish", "to die", "to cease to exist," and "to be undone." --

μεταξὺ [uncommon] (adv) "Between" is from metaxy, which means "in the midst" (of Place) "between," (of Time) "meanwhile," (of Qualities) "intermediate," and (of Degree) "the difference." As a preposition, it takes the genitive case and has the sense of "between" to parties to an agreement or discussion.

τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου (noun sg neut gen) "The altar" is from thysiastērion , which means "altar." It is a derivative of thysia, which means "sacrifice" or "victim."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

τοῦ οἴκου: (noun sg masc gen) "Temple" is oikos, which means "house", "dwelling place", "room", "home", "meeting hall", "household goods", "substance," and "ruling family." It is any dwelling place but not exclusively a separate house. 

ναί,  (exclamation) "Verily" is nai, which means "yes", "truly", "assuredly," and "even so." It is always an affirmative response.

λέγω (verb 1st sg pres ind act) "I tell" is lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelled the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep." -- The word translated as "I tell" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

ὑμῖν, (pron 2nd pl dat) "You" is humin the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc. 

ἐκζητηθήσεται  [unique] (verb 3rd sg fut ind pass) "May be required" is from ekzeteo, which means "to seek out" and "to demand an accounting of". 

ἀπὸ (prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause. 

τῆς γενεᾶς (noun sg fem gen) "Generation" is genea, which means "race", "family", "generation", "class," and "kind." It is a form of the word from which we get the scientific word,"genus." -

ταύτης, (adj sg fem gen) "This" is tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these", "this", "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. -

Related Verses: 

Mar 18 2018