Luke 12:58 When thou goest with thine adversary to the magistrate, 

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

When, as an explanation, you bring up--with that plaintiff of yours--before an official, on the way give an effort to have rid yourself of him. You don't want at some time in the future that he might drag you before a judge and the judge will hand you over to the bailiff, and the bailiff will toss you into a guard post. 

KJV : 

Luke 12:58 When thou goest with thine adversary to the magistrate, as thou art in the way, give diligence that thou mayest be delivered from him; lest he hale thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and the officer cast thee into prison.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

In the Greek, there is a lot of humor here, using As with the Matthew version, this verse stands out from the surrounding verses because it is addressed to a single individual. In English, the singular and plural "you" look alike, but in Greek they are different. There is also a strong indication that this verse is an answer to a question. This is lost in translation because a word at the beginning of the word, indicating that it is an explanation, it not translated. Most of the verses in this section are address to the crowd. This is verse is addressed to an individual. While the Matthew 5:25 version of this verse uses a number of uncommon words, this version uses four words that are used nowhere else by Jesus in the Gospels.  Again, both verses are translated to read more the same than they do in Greek. 

The word translated as "when" has a very broad meaning, translating as "how", "when", "where", "just as", "like," and related words.

There is an untranslated word here that introduces a reason or explanation so "because" and, in questions, "why." However, since this word always appears in the second position, it is more like an aside remark like, "as an explanation" or "as a cause". 

"Thou goest" is a Greek verbal command that means literally "go under" or "bring under," but Jesus usually uses it to mean "go away" and "depart."

"After" is the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It is not the term usually translated as "after."

The word translated as "adversary" primarily means an opponent in a lawsuit, but it can be used to mean opponents in general. The sense with the possessive pronoun that follow is "that plaintiff of yours". 

The word translated as "to" means "against", "before", "during", "by" or "on."

The word translated as "the magistrate" means is a higher up, someone in authority. In English, words such as archbishops, archenemy, and archangel all come from this root.

There is no Greek for "as thou art". It was added by the translators to make the verse read better since was originally spoken. 

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

"The way" is from a word meaning "the way" or "the road" but which is used symbolically to mean "a way of doing things" or "a philosophy of life." In Acts, followers of Jesus are described as those "belonging to the way". "In the way" has a double meaning here. It means both "on the way" that is, to the official and "with the philosophy".

The verb translated as "give" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

The first unique word here is translated as "diligence" and means "work", "business", "working at", "making", "function", "manufacture", "working", "trade", "practicing", and "guild".  In English, we say "given an effort" to express the same idea. The word is a more complicated word than the usual "work", which gives it a humorous feel, which we commonly see with Jesus's use of uncommon words for the sake of humor. 

The next unique word is translated as "that thou may be delivered" and means "wish to be delivered from", and "wish to get rid of".  However, the form also has the subject acting on himself so "to have rid yourself". Again, the sense is again somewhat humorous. 

The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English, but it has a few shades of meaning our pronouns do not have.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. 

The "lest" negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. 

An untranslated word appears here that means  "when", "at what time", "at some time or other", "at some unknown time, and "at some time in the future."

The third unique word is translated as "he hale" and means "draw", "pull down", "drag", "carry off",  "sweep away", "drag out",  "draw down", and "launch".  In English, when referring to being taking before a court, we would use the term "drag". This word too has the same humorous feel to it. 

The "thee" here is singular, meaning that the line was likely addressed to an individual instead of all his listeners. 

The word translated as "to" means "towards", "by reason of (for)," and "against."

"The judge" is a Greek word that means "judge", "umpire," and "interpreter."

The Greek word translated as "deliver" means literally to "give over." In this context in English, we would usually say "turn you over."

The fourth unique word here is "officer" which means "accomplisher", "one who does",  "an official who executes a judgment for debt", "bailiff", "collector" (of taxes), "one who exacts punishment", and "avenger". This is a very specific term. 

The word translated as "cast" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." Jesus often uses this word in the same way we use "dump" in English. In dice, it means "to throw" the dice, but with the sense of being lucky.

The Greek word translated as "prison" means "guarding" or "guard." In modern English, we would say "under guard.

Wordplay: 

"In the way" has a double meaning here. It means both "on the way" that is, to the official and "with the philosophy" 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

ὡς (adv/conj) "When" is hos an adverb which means to "thus", "as", "how", "when", "where", "like", "just as", "so far as", "as much as can be", "that", "in order that", "nearly (with numbers)," and "know that." --

γὰρ (partic) Untranslated is gar (with hos above) which is the introduction of a clause explaining a reason or explanation: "for", "since," and "as." In an abrupt question, it means "why" and "what." --

ὑπάγεις (verb 2nd sg pres ind act) "Thou goest" is hypago, which means "to lead under", "to bring under", "to bring a person before judgment", "to lead on by degrees", "to take away from beneath", "to withdraw", "to go away", "to retire", "to draw off," and "off with you." --

μετὰ (prep) "With" is meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to," and "next afterward." 

τοῦ ἀντιδίκου [uncommon](adj sg masc dat) "Adversary" is from antidikos, which means "opponent or adversary in a suit", "the defendant [primarily]," "the plaintiff," and, generally, "opponent," and "adversary."

σου (adj sg masc gen) "Thine" is from sou which means "you" and "your."

ἐπ᾽ (prep) "To" is epi, which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "during", and "against." 

ἄρχοντα, (noun sg masc acc) "The magistrate" is from archon, which means "ruler", "commander", "official," and "magistrate."

ἐν (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τῇ ὁδῷ (noun sg fem dat) "The way" is from hodos, which means literally "the way" or "the road" but which is used symbolically to mean "a way of doing things" or "a philosophy of life."

δὸς (verb 2nd sg aor imperat act) "Give" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." --

ἐργασίαν [unique](noun sg fem acc) "Diligence" is ergasia, which means "work", "business", "working at", "making", "function", "manufacture", "working", "trade", "practicing", and "guild". 

ἀπηλλάχθαι [unique](verb perf inf mp) "That thou may be delivered" is apallasso, which means "wish to be delivered from", and "wish to get rid of". 

[ἀπ᾽] (prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

αὐτοῦ, (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." -

μή (partic) "Lest" is me which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. 

ποτε (adv/conj) Intrnslated is pote, which means "when", "at what time", "at some time or other", "at some unknown time, and "at some time in the future."

κατασύρῃ [unique](verb 3rd sg aor subj act) "He hale" is katasyro, which means "draw", "pull down", :drag", "carry off",  "sweep away", "drag out",  "draw down", and "launch". 

σε (pron 2nd sg acc) "Thee" is from se, the second person singular accusative pronoun. -- 

πρὸς (prep) "To" is pros, which means "on the side of", "in the direction of", "from (place)", "towards" "before", "in the presence of", "in the eyes of", "in the name of", "by reason of", "before (supplication)", "proceeding from (for effects)", "dependent on", "derivable from", "agreeable,""becoming", "like", "at the point of", "in addition to", "against," and "before." --

τὸν κριτήν, (noun sg masc dat) "The judge" is from krites, which means "judge", "umpire," and "interpreter."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

κριτής (noun sg masc nom) "The judge" is from krites, which means "judge", "umpire," and "interpreter."

σε (pron 2nd sg acc) "Thee" is from se, the second person singular accusative pronoun. -- The "thee" here is singular, meaning that the line was likely addressed to an individual instead of all his listeners. 

παραδώσει (verb 3rd sg fut ind act) "Deliver" is from paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

τῷ πράκτορι, [unique](noun sg masc dat) "Officer" is praktōr, which means "accomplisher", "one who does",  "official who executes a judgment for debt", "bailiff", "collector" (of taxes), "one who exacts punishment", and "avenger".

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

πράκτωρ [unique](noun sg masc nom) "Officer" is praktōr, which means "accomplisher", "one who does",  "official who executes a judgment for debt", "bailiff", "collector" (of taxes), "one who exacts punishment", and "avenger".

σε (pron 2nd sg acc) "Thee" is from se, the second person singular accusative pronoun. -

βαλεῖ (verb 3rd sg fut ind act ) "Cast" is from ballo, which means "to throw", "to let fall", "to put", "to pour," or "to cast."

εἰς (prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

φυλακήν. (noun sg fem acc) "Prison" is from phylake, which means "a watching or guarding", "a guard", "a ward", "a watch", " "a station", "a post," "a keeping", "a preserving", "safekeeping", "a safe-guard," and "a precaution."

Front Page Date: 

May 13 2018