Luke 13:19 It is like a grain of mustard seed,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 13:19 It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and cast into his garden; and it grew, and waxed a great tree; and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Similar is the kernel of mustard that taking, a person tossed in an orchard of  his own. And it increased and turned into a tree.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The Luke version of this verse combines and abbreviates the versions in Matthew and Mark. All three verse use different words and seem likely recorded at different times when the example was given in different ways. In northern climes, the mustard plant only grows to about three feet. In the Middle East, it can grow to fifteen feet with a thick central stalk. The seed itself is only about a sixteenth of an inch, which is very small compared to other trees of the region.

Historically, mustard was not just used as flavoring for food and wine, but it was prominently used in medicine. In the sixth century B.C., Greek scientist Pythagoras used mustard as a remedy for scorpion stings. One hundred years later, Hippocrates used mustard in a variety of medicines and poultices. This makes it even better for this analogy regarding the growth of knowledge because this knowledge isn't just about flavoring food but curing disease.In this analogy, we also have those winged creatures that stole away the seeds in the parable of the sower making a reappearance. The same non-standard word for "birds" is used, indicating angels or demons. Here, however, those same creatures seek shelter in the shade of this tree. Interestingly, however, the term used for "shade" also means a ghost or evil spirit. What is the ghost or evil spirit of a tree of knowledge?

KJV Analysis: 

It This is from the singular form of the following verb.

is The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

like The word translated as "like" is an adjective that means "like", "resembling," and "matching." 

a There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

grain The Greek word translated as "grain" means "a grain" and "a seed," though it is not the Greek word more commonly translated as "seed." Interestingly, it is used as a metaphor for a "grain of sense," which fits directly into the meaning here.

of This comes from the genitive form of the following noun.

mustard "Mustard" is the noun that means simply "mustard."

seed, This Greek word for "seed" does not appear here.

which, The word translated as "which" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

a There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

man The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

took, The word translated as "took" primarily means "take." The form is not an active verb but an adjective, "taking." modifying "man."

and There is no "and" here because there is only one active verb.

cast The word translated as "cast" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." Christ often uses this word in the same way we use "dump" in English. In dice, it means "to throw" the dice, but with the sense of being lucky.

into The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

his "His" is a special reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself," and so on. The sense here is "his own."

garden; "Garden" is a word used by Jesus only in this verse. It means "garden", "orchard", and "plantation". It was also a hairstyle. 

and The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

it This comes from the singular form of the following Greek verb.

grew, "Grew" is a verb that means to "increase", "increase in power", "strengthen", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "amplify", "exaggerate", "bring up," and "sacrifice."

and The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

waxed The word translated as "waxed" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Christ, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state.

a There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

untranslated The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

great There is no Greek word for "great" here.

tree The word for "tree" most commonly means fruit bearing trees. The tree was a symbol for the naturally productive assets of nature as opposed to fields which must be planted each year.

; and The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

the The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article

fowls The Greek word translated as "fowls" is normally an adjective means "able to fly" and "winged," but it is used as a noun here, so "those that can fly" or, more simply, "birds." Christ always uses this term when referring to birds rather than the actual Greek noun for "birds."

of This comes from the form of the following noun.

the The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article

air The word translated as "air" is from a word that is almost always translated as "heaven" in te NT. It also means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. Though heaven is used in Christianity as the place of the afterlife, Christ never uses it that way though he does use it to mean the home of the Father.

lodged The word translated as "lodge" is a verb that means "to camp" and "to take up quarters" but specifically means "to settle" when applied to birds. The description is more

in The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

the The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article

branches The word translated as "branches" also means "twigs" or "offshoots."

of This comes from the form of the following word.

it.  The word translated as "it" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

Greek Vocabulary: 

ὁμοία (adj pl neut acc) "Like" is from homoios, which means "like", "resembling", "the same", "equal in force, "a match for one", "suiting", "of the same rank", "alike", "in like manner," and "equally."

ἐστὶν (3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

κόκκῳ (noun sg masc dat) "A grain" is from kokkos (kokkos), which means "a grain" and "a seed," and a metaphor for a "grain of sense."

σινάπεως (noun sg neut gen) "Of mustard seed," is from sinapi, (sinapi) which means simply "mustard."

ὃν (pron sg masc acc) "Which" is from hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

λαβὼν (part sg aor act masc nom) "Took" is from lambano means to "take", "take hold of", "grasp", "seize", "catch", "overtake", "find out", "detect", "take as", "take [food or drugs]", "understand", "take in hand", "undertake", "take in", "hold", "get", "receive [things]", "receive hospitably", "receive in marriage", "receive as produce", "profit", "admit", "initiate", "take hold of", "lay hold on", "seize and keep hold of", "obtain possession of", "lay hands upon", "find fault with", "censure, ""to apprehend with the senses", "to take hold of," and "to seize." It is also specifically used to mean "seized with emotion."

ἄνθρωπος (noun sg masc nom) "A man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἔβαλεν (verb 3rd sg aor ind act ) "Cast" is ballo, which means "to throw", "to let fall," "to cast," "to put", "to pour", "to place money on deposit", "push forward or in front [of animals]", "to shed", "to place", "to pay,"to throw [of dice,]" "to be lucky", "to fall", "to lay as foundation", "to begin to form", "to dash oneself with water," and "to bathe." --

εἰς (prep) "Into" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." --

κῆπον [unique]( noun sg masc acc ) "Garden" is kepos, which means "garden", "orchard", and "plantation". It was also a hairstyle. 

ἑαυτοῦ, (adj sg masc gen) "His" is heautou, is a reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself", "itself" "themselves," and "ourselves." It is an alternative to autos.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

ηὔξησεν (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "It grew" is auxano, which means to "increase", "increase in power", "strengthen", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "amplify", "exaggerate", "bring up," and "sacrifice."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐγένετο (verb 3rd sg aor ind mid) "Waxed" is ginomai, which means "to become", "to come into being", "to be produced," and "to be." It means changing into a new state of being. It is the complementary opposite of the verb "to be" (eimi)which indicates existence in the same state. --

εἰς (prep) Untranslated is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." --

δένδρον, (noun sg neut nom) "Tree" is dendron (more commonly spelled dendreon), which means "tree", "fruit-tree", "tall plants (such as rattan)" "stick," and "timber." --

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

τὰ (article pl neut nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." --

πετεινὰ (adj pl neut nom) "Fowls" is from peteinon, which as an adjective means "able to fly", "full-fledged," and "winged," and, as a noun, "winged fowl," and "a bird."

τοῦ "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

οὐρανοῦ  (noun sg masc gen) "Of the air" is from the Greek ouranos, which means "heaven as in the vault of the sky", "heaven as the seat of the gods", "the sky", "the universe," and "the climate."

κατεσκήνωσεν  (verb futperf inf act) "Lodged" is from kataskênoô, which means "to camp" and "to take up quarters" but specifically means "to settle" when applied to birds.

ἐν (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τοῖς κλάδοις (noun pl masc dat) "Branches" is from klados, which means "branches", "twig", "shoot," and "branch" of a blood vessel.

αὐτοῦ.”  (adj sg neut gen)"thereof" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

Related Verses: 

May 27 2018