Luke 13:19 It is like a grain of mustard seed,

Spoken to: 

audience

After humiliating his opponents regarding curing a woman on the Sabbath, Jesus starts the parable of the mustard seed.

KJV: 

Luke 13:19 It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and cast into his garden; and it grew, and waxed a great tree; and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it.

NIV : 

Luke 13:19 It is like a mustard seed, which a man took and planted in his garden. It grew and became a tree, and the birds perched in its branches.”

LISTENERS HEARD: 

Similar is the kernel of mustard that a person, acquiring, tossed into an orchard of  his own. And it grew and turned into a tree and the winged ones of the air perched in those branches of it.

MY TAKE: 

Small it as small does.

GREEK (Each Word Explained Bottom of Page): 

GREEK ORDER: 

ὁμοία    ἐστὶν   κόκκῳ  σινάπεως, ὃν      λαβὼν     ἄνθρωπος ἔβαλεν εἰς        κῆπον        ἑαυτοῦ,
Similar is       a kernel of mustard that a acquiring perso  n, , tossed  into an orchard of  his own.

καὶ   ηὔξησεν καὶ ἐγένετο εἰς    δένδρον, καὶτὰ   πετεινὰ            τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατεσκήνωσεν
And it grew   and turned   into a tree       and   the winged ones of the air           perched

ἐν τοῖς   κλάδοις  αὐτοῦ.”
in those branches of it.

LOST IN TRANSLATION: 

The Luke version of this verse combines and abbreviates the versions in Matthew and Mark. All three verse use different words and seem likely recorded at different times when the example was given in different ways.

In northern climes, the mustard plant only grows to about three feet. In the Middle East, it can grow to fifteen feet with a thick central stalk. The seed itself is only about a sixteenth of an inch, which is very small compared to other trees of the region. Historically, mustard was not just used as flavoring for food and wine, but it was prominently used in medicine. In the sixth century B.C., Greek scientist Pythagoras used mustard as a remedy for scorpion stings. One hundred years later, Hippocrates used mustard in a variety of medicines and poultices. It medicinal use makes it even better for this analogy regarding the growth of knowledge because this knowledge isn't just about flavoring food but curing disease.

In this analogy, we also have those winged creatures that stole away the seeds in the parable of the sower making a reappearance. Since the analogy is with "the sky," same non-standard word for "birds" is used, indicating angels or demons. Our modern comcept natually goes to "heaven" with its angels, but the idea was unknown in the time of Jesus.

# KJV TRANSLATION ISSUES: 

5

It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took(WF), and cast into his(CW) garden; and it grew, and waxed(WW) (MWinto) a great(IW) tree; and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it.

  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "getting."
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "and" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW --Confusing Word -- This is not the common word usually translated as "his."
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "waxed" should be something more like "developed itself."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "into"  after "grew" is not shown in the English translation. 
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "great" doesn't exist in the source.
It is like a (MWgrain) mustard seed, which a man took(WF) and planted in his(CW) garden. (MWand) It grew and became (MWinto) a tree, and the birds perched in its (MWthe) branches.”
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "grain "  after "like" is not shown in the English translation. 
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "getting."
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "planted" should be something more like "tossed
  • CW --Confusing Word -- This is not the common word usually translated as "his."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "and"  after "garden" is not shown in the English translation. 
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "into"  after "a" is not shown in the English translation.  
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "branches" is not shown in the English translation.

EACH WORD of KJV : 

It -- This is from the singular form of the following verb.

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

like -- The word translated as "like" is an adjective that means "like", "alike," and "matching." 

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

grain -- The Greek word translated as "grain" means "a grain" and "a seed," though it is not the Greek word more commonly translated as "seed." Interestingly, it is used as a metaphor for a "grain of sense," which fits directly into the meaning here.

of -- This comes from the genitive form of the following noun.

mustard  -- "Mustard" is the noun that means simply "mustard."

seed, -- This Greek word for "seed" does not appear here.

which, -- The word translated as "which" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

man -- The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

took, -- (WF) The word translated as "took" primarily means "take." The form is not an active verb but an adjective, "taking." modifying "man."

and -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

cast  -- The word translated as "cast" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." Jesus often uses this word in the same way we use "dump" in English. In dice, it means "to throw" the dice, but with the sense of being lucky.

into -- The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

his --  (CW) "His" is a special reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself," and so on. The sense here is "his own." This is not the word usually translated as "his."

garden; -- "Garden" is a word used by Jesus only in this verse. It means "garden", "orchard", and "plantation". It was also a hairstyle. 

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." 

it -- This comes from the singular form of the following Greek verb.

grew, -- "Grew" is a verb that means to "increase", "increase in power", "strengthen", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "amplify", "exaggerate", "bring up," and "sacrifice."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." 

waxed -- (WW)  The word translated as "waxed" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Jesus, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state.This word doesn't mean "waxed." 

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

missing "into"  -- (MW) The untranslated word means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

great -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

tree -- The word for "tree" most commonly means fruit bearing trees. The tree was a symbol for the naturally productive assets of nature as opposed to fields which must be planted each year.

; and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article

fowls -- The Greek word translated as "fowls" is normally an adjective means "able to fly" and "winged," but it is used as a noun here, so "those that can fly" or, more simply, "birds." Christ always uses this term when referring to birds rather than the actual Greek noun for "birds."

of -- This comes from the form of the following noun.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article

air -- The word translated as "air" is from a word that is almost always translated as "heaven" in te NT. It also means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. Though heaven is used in Christianity as the place of the afterlife, Christ never uses it that way though he does use it to mean the home of the Father.

lodged -- The word translated as "lodge" is a verb that means "to camp" and "to take up quarters" but specifically means "to settle" when applied to birds. The description is more

in  -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article

branches -- The word translated as "branches" also means "twigs" or "offshoots."

of -- This comes from the form of the following word.

it. -- The word translated as "it" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

EACH WORD of NIV : 

It -- This is from the singular form of the following verb.

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

like -- The word translated as "like" is an adjective that means "like", "alike," and "matching." 

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

missing "grain "  -- (MW) The untranslated word   "grain" means "a grain" and "a seed," though it is not the Greek word more commonly translated as "seed." Interestingly, it is used as a metaphor for a "grain of sense," which fits directly into the meaning here.

mustard  -- "Mustard" is the noun that means simply "mustard."

seed, -- This Greek word for "seed" does not appear here.

which, -- The word translated as "which" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

man -- The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

took, -- (WF) The word translated as "took" primarily means "take." The form is not an active verb but an adjective, "taking." modifying "man." This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "word."

and -- There is no "and" here because there is only one active verb.

planted (WW)  This word doesn't mean "planted." The word translated as "planted" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." Jesus often uses this word in the same way we use "dump" in English. In dice, it means "to throw" the dice, but with the sense of being lucky.

cast  -- (WW) The word translated as "cast" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." Jesus often uses this word in the same way we use "dump" in English. In dice, it means "to throw" the dice, but with the sense of being lucky.

into -- The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

his --  (CW) "His" is a special reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself," and so on. The sense here is "his own." This is not the word usually translated as "his."

garden; -- "Garden" is a word used by Jesus only in this verse. It means "garden", "orchard", and "plantation". It was also a hairstyle.

missing "and"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." 

It -- This comes from the singular form of the following Greek verb.

grew, -- "Grew" is a verb that means to "increase", "increase in power", "strengthen", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "amplify", "exaggerate", "bring up," and "sacrifice."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." 

became --  The word translated as "become" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Jesus, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state.This word doesn't mean "waxed." 

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

missing "into"  -- (MW) The untranslated word means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

tree -- The word for "tree" most commonly means fruit bearing trees. The tree was a symbol for the naturally productive assets of nature as opposed to fields which must be planted each year.

; and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article.

birds -- The Greek word translated as "birds " is normally an adjective means "able to fly" and "winged," but it is used as a noun here, so "those that can fly" or, more simply, "birds." Christ always uses this term when referring to birds rather than the actual Greek noun for "birds."

missing "of the air"  -- -- (MP) The words here aren't translated with their correct meanings and forms. MP - Missing Phrase - The phrase "of the air"  exists in the source. This is counted as 2 translation issues, not 1. The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The word translated as "air" is from a word that is almost always translated as "heaven" in te NT. It also means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. Though heaven is used in Christianity as the place of the afterlife, Christ never uses it that way though he does use it to mean the home of the Father.

perched -- The word translated as "lodge" is a verb that means "to camp" and "to take up quarters" but specifically means "to settle" when applied to birds. The description is more

in  -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

its. -- The word translated as "it" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more.

branches-- The word translated as "branches" also means "twigs" or "offshoots."

COMPARISON: GREEK to KJV : 

ὁμοία [29 verses](verb 1st sg fut ind act) "Like" is from homoios, which means "like", "resembling", "the same", "equal in force, "a match for one", "suiting", "of the same rank", "alike", "in like manner," and "equally."

ἐστὶν [614 verses](3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

κόκκῳ [6 verses](noun sg masc dat) "Grain" is kokkos, which means "a grain" and "a seed," "testicles," and it is a metaphor for a "grain of sense." -- The word translated as "grain" means "kernel," or "grain." It can also mean "seed." However, it is not the most common word for a "seed" in Greek which is a different word in Greek.

σινάπεως, [4 verses](noun sg neut gen) "Of mustard seed," is sinapi which means simply "mustard." "Mustard seed" is sinapi which means simply "mustard."

ὃν [294 verses](pron sg masc/neut acc) "Which" is from hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

λαβὼν [54 verse](part sg aor act masc nom) "Took" is from lambano means to "take", "take hold of", "grasp", "seize", "catch", "overtake", "find out", "detect", "take as", "take [food or drugs]", "understand", "take in hand", "undertake", "take in", "hold", "get", "receive [things]", "receive hospitably", "receive in marriage", "receive as produce", "profit", "admit", "initiate", "take hold of", "lay hold on", "seize and keep hold of", "obtain possession of", "lay hands upon", "find fault with", "censure, ""to apprehend with the senses", "to take hold of," and "to seize." It is also specifically used to mean "seized with emotion."

ἄνθρωπος [209 verses](noun sg masc nom) "A man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἔβαλεν [54 verses](verb 3rd sg aor ind act ) "Cast" is ballo, which means "to throw", "to let fall," "to cast," "to put", "to pour", "to place money on deposit", "push forward or in front [of animals]", "to shed", "to place", "to pay,"to throw [of dice,]" "to be lucky", "to fall", "to lay as foundation", "to begin to form", "to dash oneself with water," and "to bathe." --

εἰς  [325 verses](prep) "Into" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." --

κῆπον [1 verse]( noun sg masc acc ) "Garden" is kepos, which means "garden", "orchard", and "plantation". It was also a hairstyle.

ἑαυτοῦ, [75 verses](adj sg masc gen) "His" is heautou, is a reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself", "itself" "themselves," and "ourselves." It is an alternative to autos.

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

ηὔξησεν [6 verses](verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "It grew" is auxano, which means to "increase", "increase in power", "strengthen", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "exalt by one's deeds", "glorify", "amplify", "exaggerate", "bring up," and "sacrifice."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

ἐγένετο [117 verses](verb 3rd sg aor ind mid) "Waxed" is ginomai, which means "to become", "to come into being", "to happen", "to be produced," and "to be." It means changing into a new state of being. It is the complementary opposite of the verb "to be" (eimi)which indicates existence in the same state. --

εἰς [325 verses](prep) Untranslated is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." --

δένδρον, [9 verses] (noun sg neut nom) "Tree" is dendron (more commonly spelled dendreon), which means "tree", "fruit-tree", "tall plants (such as rattan)" "stick," and "timber." --

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

τὰ (article pl neut nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

πετεινὰ [13 verses](adj pl neut nom) "Fowls" is from peteinon, which as an adjective means "able to fly", "full-fledged," and "winged," and, as a noun, "winged fowl," and "a bird."

τοῦ [821 verses]"The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

οὐρανοῦ [111 verses] (noun sg masc gen) "Of the air" is from the Greek ouranos, which means "heaven as in the vault of the sky", "heaven as the seat of the gods", "the sky", "the universe," and "the climate."

κατεσκήνωσεν  [3 verses] (verb 3rd sg aor ind) "Lodged" is from kataskênoô, which means "to camp" and "to take up quarters" but specifically means "to settle" when applied to birds.

ἐν [413 verses](prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τοῖς [821 verses](article pl masc dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").   It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."  -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

κλάδοις [5 verses](noun pl masc dat) "Branches" is from klados, which means "branches", "twig", "shoot," and "branch" of a blood vessel.

αὐτοῦ [142 verses](adv/adj sg masc gen) "His/" is autou, which means is the singular adjective used as the genitive pronoun, which is used as a possessive form or the object of prepositions and sometimes verbs as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In its adverbial form, this means "just here" or "exactly there." This form is often used as the object of a preposition, him." This form of an object of a preposition means a movement away from something or a position away from something else. The time sense of a genitive object is that the event occurred within a specified time. Though the form is masculine, it refers to masculine words, not people.  The masculine form is used to refer to people in general, not just men.-- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word correctly translated as third-person "his/him" in English.  The word appears after the noun so the sense is "of his." - In its adverbial form, this means "just here" or "exactly there." 

Related Verses: 

Front Page Date: 

Aug 17 2024