Luke 14:31 Or what king, going to make war against another king,

Spoken to: 

audience

Jesus addresses a large crowd that has when you want to build a tower, you must sit down and calculate the cost or  be mocked for not finishing.

KJV: 

Luke 14:31 Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand?

NIV : 

Luke 14:31  Or suppose a king is about to go to war against another king. Won’t he first sit down and consider whether he is able with ten thousand men to oppose the one coming against him with twenty thousand?

LISTENERS HEARD: 

Truly, what king, marching to another king to join in war, doesn't indeed first consider, sitting down,  whether he is powerful among ten thousand to meet somebody with twenty thousand showing up against him. 

MY TAKE: 

Look before you leap into conflict.

GREEK (Each Word Explained Bottom of Page): 

GREEK ORDER: 

      τίς     βασιλεὺς  πορευόμενος ἑτέρῳ         βασιλεῖ συνβαλεῖν εἰς   πόλεμον
truly what king,       marching      to another king     to join      in a war,      

οὐχὶ                καθίσας          πρῶτον βουλεύσεται      εἰ             δυνατός                          δέκα χιλιάσιν
-n't , indeed,  sitting down, first      does  consider  whether  powerful he is   among ten  thousand

 ὑπαντῆσαι    τῷ              μετὰ εἴκοσι   χιλιάδων  ἐρχομένῳ     ἐπ᾽        αὐτόν;
 to meet        somebody with twenty thousand showing up against him. 

LOST IN TRANSLATION: 

Jesus only mentions "war" three times, twice to talk about news and rumors, and this verses, which is less about strategy than looking before we leap.

There three are unique words here ("to meet," "thousand," "consulteth')  and a number of uncommon ones. Most seem chosen for their double meanings. For example, "to meet" means "dash together" in the sense of rushing into, but it also means "join in a fight." It has a sense, however, of leaping. The word translate as "able" means "strong" or "powerful."

The two "with" words here that describe being with thousands are two different prepositions. Only numbers are given as their objects, "ten thousands," and "twenty thousand."

# KJV TRANSLATION ISSUES: 

4

Or what king, going to make(WW) war against another king, sitteth not(CW) down first, and consulteth whether he be able with(CW) ten thousand to meet him that cometh(WF) against him with twenty thousand?

  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "make" should be something more like "dash together."
  • CW --Confusing Word -- This is not one of the common words usually translated as "not."
  • CW --Confusing Word -- This is not the common word usually translated as "with."
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "coming."

# NIV TRANSLATION ISSUES: 

9

Or suppose(IW) a(WW) king [is about to(IP3)] go(WF) to (MWjoin into) war against another king. Wo(WF) n’t(CW) he first sit down and consider whether he is able with ten thousand men to oppose(WW) the one coming against him with twenty thousand?

Or what king, going to make(WW) war against another king, sitteth not(CW) down first, and consulteth whether he be able with(CW) ten thousand to meet him that cometh(WF) against him with twenty thousand?

  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "suppose" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "a" should be something more like "a someone."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The " is about to" doesn't exist in the source. This is counted as 3 translation issues, not 1.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "going."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "join into"  after "to" is not shown in the English translation. 
  • WM  --Wrong Mood  - The verb "would" is indicates a mood of possibility, this is a simple statement.
  • CW --Confusing Word -- This is not one of the common words usually translated as "not."
  • CW --Confusing Word -- This is not the common word usually translated as "with."
  • IW - Inserted Word-- The "men " doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "oppose" should be something more like "meet."

EACH WORD of KJV : 

Or  -- "Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

what -- The Greek word translated as "what" in the singular means "anyone," "someone,"  "something," and "anything." The same forms are used both for the masculine and feminine, so "anyone" works best for a person. In the plural, it means "everyone," "some," "they," and "those." Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who," "what," "which," or even "why."

king, -- "King" is translated from a Greek word which means a "king" or "chief."

going -- The word translated as "going," means, in the passive, used here, to "go," "march," "depart," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT but Jesus uses it to mean "depart." This word uniquely means "to pursue a course" and "to depart from life." Jesus also uses it for a play on words referring to its "depart from life" meaning.

to -- This "to" is added to create the infinitive form of the following verb.

make -- (WW) "To make" is a  verb that Jesus  only uses here that means "which means throw together," "dash together," "collect," "jumble up together," "to be profitable," but it also specific means "to join in a fight," which is why it is used here. However, "dash together" is clearly a humorous way to say join in a fight. This word doesn't mean "make." 

war -- "War" is a noun that Jesus only uses in three other verses (the same idea repeated in three Gospels) that means "war," "battle," or "fight." It is a metaphor for "womankind."

against -- The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in" (a position),  "as much as (of measure or limit)," "in regards to" a subject, "up to" limits in measures, "until" in reference to time, "within" a time limit, and "for" a purpose or object. Used with the Greek "from" it means "from...to."

another -- The word translated as "another" means "one of two," "other," "another,"  or "different." It is an adjective used as a noun.

king, -- "King" is translated from a Greek word which means a "king" or "chief."

sitteth  -- "Sit...down" is a Greek verb  "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to post," "to take seats," "to convene," "to appoint,"  and "to establish."

not --  (CW) The word translated as "not" is a different form of the usual Greek negative of fact meaning "no truly," "assuredly not," "not however," "nevertheless," and "notwithstanding." This word can have a reversing effect, making a negative into a positive, with questions. Used in questions where an affirmative answer is expected. Used in answers where a "yes" must be supplied. Perhaps best translated as an "isn't it?" at the end of the sentence.  The fact that ancient Greek has no clear verb form for questions makes interpreting it difficult. This is not one of the common words usually translated as "not."

down - This completes the meaning of the verb. It is from the prefix.

first, -- The word translated as "first" takes a lot of different types of "first" meanings from its context. Here, it is technically an adjective but it plays the role of the English adverb "initially."

and -- The word translated as "first" takes a lot of different types of "first" meanings from its context. Here, it is technically an adjective but it plays the role of the English adverb "initially."

consulteth -- "Consulteth" is another verb that Jesus only uses here. It means to "take counsel, deliberate," "sit in council," "take counsel with oneself," "deliberate," "determine with oneself," and "resolve on."  It is the active verb, but the form is again amusing because the subject acts on himself, "determine for oneself" or "decide for himself." 

whether -- The "whether" here is used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect and direct questions, "whether."It also means "if ever" and "whenever." When used in an "if" clause, the verb is the subjunctive form of possibility. When citing a fact  the sense is more  "whether," "since" or "as sure as." The verb is not subjunctive, which means it is citing a fact. This word doesn't mean "if" with this form of verb.

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

be  -- The verb "be" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.  The word also means "to exist" and where it doesn't connect to characteristics or conditions.

able -- "Able" is from an adjective which means "strong," "mighty," "possible," and "practicable." This is the adjective form of the noun usually translated as "power." Power is what makes things possible.

with   -- (CW)The word translated as "with" means "in," "on," "within," "with" (an instrument), "by" (near), "by" (means of), "during" (time),  or "among"  with an indirect-object form object.  About time, it means "during the time," "in the time," "within," and "in." With the direct object form, it means "into," "on," and "for." When referring to time, it means "during." It can mean "on," "at," or "by" in the sense of "near." This is not the word usually translated as "with."

ten -- "Ten" is the Greek word for the numeral "ten."

thousand -- "Thousand" is a numeral that means "a thousand" or "a large number."  It is used by Jesus uniquely in this verse. 

to -- This "to" is added to create the infinitive form of the following verb.

meet -- "Meet" is a verb that Jesus only uses here and in Luke version. It means to " meet face to face", "encounter", "meet with", and "come in contact with".  It is from a root that is frequently used that means "gather". The form gives it a third person masculine subject, so "he will meet you" or "he is going to meet". 

him -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

that -- The Greek word translated as "that" in the singular means "anyone," "someone,"  "something," and "anything." The same forms are used both for the masculine and feminine, so "anyone" works best for a person. In the plural, it means "everyone," "some," "they," and "those." Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who," "what," "which," or even "why."

cometh -- (WF) The word translated as "come" primarily means "to start out" but Jesus usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "start," "come," or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Technically, it is in the middle voice meaning the subject acts on himself. In English, this is assumed in our words "come" and "go." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. See this article for more. This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "coming."

against -- The word translated as "against" means "on," "over," "upon," "for,"  "against," "before," "after," "during," "by" "in the case of."

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek adjective that acts like our third-person pronoun. The form is the third person, singular, masculine as a direct object of a verb or preposition. 

with -- "With" is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of." It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit.

twenty --  "Twenty" is the numeral "twenty" used only by Jesus here. 

thousand? "Thousand" is a numeral that means "a thousand" or "a large number."  It is used by Jesus uniquely in this verse. 

EACH WORD of NIV : 

Or  -- "Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison. The same word could also be the exclamation "hi" or the adverb meaning "in truth."

suppose -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

a -- (WW) The Greek word translated as "a" in the singular means "anyone," "someone,"  "something," and "anything." The same forms are used both for the masculine and feminine, so "anyone" works best for a person. In the plural, it means "everyone," "some," "they," and "those." Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who," "what," "which," or even "why."

king, -- "King" is translated from a Greek word which means a "king" or "chief."

 is about to -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as this phrase in the Greek source.

go -- (WF) The word translated as "go," means, in the passive, used here, to "go," "march," "depart," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT but Jesus uses it to mean "depart." This word uniquely means "to pursue a course" and "to depart from life." Jesus also uses it for a play on words referring to its "depart from life" meaning. This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "going."

to -- This "to" is added to create the infinitive form of the following verb.

missing "join into"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "To make" is a  verb that Jesus  only uses here that means "which means throw together," "dash together," "collect," "jumble up together," "to be profitable," but it also specific means "to join in a fight," which is why it is used here.

war -- "War" is a noun that Jesus only uses in three other verses (the same idea repeated in three Gospels) that means "war," "battle," or "fight." It is a metaphor for "womankind."

against -- The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in" (a position),  "as much as (of measure or limit)," "in regards to" a subject, "up to" limits in measures, "until" in reference to time, "within" a time limit, and "for" a purpose or object. Used with the Greek "from" it means "from...to."

another -- The word translated as "another" means "one of two," "other," "another,"  or "different." It is an adjective used as a noun.

king, -- "King" is translated from a Greek word which means a "king" or "chief."

Wo- (WM) The verb "would" is indicates a mood of possibility, but this is not a verb in that form, this is a simple statement.

-n’t --  (CW) The word translated as "not" is a different form of the usual Greek negative of fact meaning "no truly," "assuredly not," "not however," "nevertheless," and "notwithstanding." This word can have a reversing effect, making a negative into a positive, with questions. Used in questions where an affirmative answer is expected. Used in answers where a "yes" must be supplied. Perhaps best translated as an "isn't it?" at the end of the sentence.  The fact that ancient Greek has no clear verb form for questions makes interpreting it difficult. This is not one of the common words usually translated as "not."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

first, -- The word translated as "first" takes a lot of different types of "first" meanings from its context. Here, it is technically an adjective but it plays the role of the English adverb "initially."

sit down   -- "Sit...down" is a Greek verb  "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to post," "to take seats," "to convene," "to appoint,"  and "to establish."

and -- The word translated as "first" takes a lot of different types of "first" meanings from its context. Here, it is technically an adjective but it plays the role of the English adverb "initially."

consider -- "Consider " is another verb that Jesus only uses here. It means to "take counsel, deliberate," "sit in council," "take counsel with oneself," "deliberate," "determine with oneself," and "resolve on."  It is the active verb, but the form is again amusing because the subject acts on himself, "determine for oneself" or "decide for himself." 

whether -- The "whether" here is used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect and direct questions, "whether."It also means "if ever" and "whenever." When used in an "if" clause, the verb is the subjunctive form of possibility. When citing a fact  the sense is more  "whether," "since" or "as sure as." The verb is not subjunctive, which means it is citing a fact. This word doesn't mean "if" with this form of verb.

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

is -- The verb "be" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.  The word also means "to exist" and where it doesn't connect to characteristics or conditions.

able -- "Able" is from an adjective which means "strong," "mighty," "possible," and "practicable." This is the adjective form of the noun usually translated as "power." Power is what makes things possible.

with   -- (CW)The word translated as "with" means "in," "on," "within," "with" (an instrument), "by" (near), "by" (means of), "during" (time),  or "among"  with an indirect-object form object.  About time, it means "during the time," "in the time," "within," and "in." With the direct object form, it means "into," "on," and "for." When referring to time, it means "during." It can mean "on," "at," or "by" in the sense of "near." This is not the word usually translated as "with."

ten -- "Ten" is the Greek word for the numeral "ten."

thousand -- "Thousand" is a numeral that means "a thousand" or "a large number."  It is used by Jesus uniquely in this verse. 

men -- (IW) This word is not in the Greek source.

to -- This "to" is added to create the infinitive form of the following verb.

oppose -- (WW) "Meet" is a verb that Jesus only uses here and in Luke version. It means to " meet face to face", "encounter", "meet with", and "come in contact with".  It is from a root that is frequently used that means "gather". The form gives it a third person masculine subject, so "he will meet you" or "he is going to meet". This word doesn't mean "oppose."

him -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

 the one -- The Greek word translated as "that" in the singular means "anyone," "someone,"  "something," and "anything." The same forms are used both for the masculine and feminine, so "anyone" works best for a person. In the plural, it means "everyone," "some," "they," and "those." Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who," "what," "which," or even "why."

coming --The word translated as "come" primarily means "to start out" but Jesus usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "start," "come," or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Technically, it is in the middle voice meaning the subject acts on himself. In English, this is assumed in our words "come" and "go." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. See this article for more. This is not an active verb but a participle, a verbal adjective, "coming."

against -- The word translated as "against" means "on," "over," "upon," "for,"  "against," "before," "after," "during," "by" "in the case of."

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek adjective that acts like our third-person pronoun. The form is the third person, singular, masculine as a direct object of a verb or preposition.

with -- "With" is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of." It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit.

twenty --  "Twenty" is the numeral "twenty" used only by Jesus here. 

thousand?-- "Thousand" is a numeral that means "a thousand" or "a large number."  It is used by Jesus uniquely in this verse. 

COMPARISON: GREEK to KJV : 

[92 verses](conj/adv)  "Or" is e, which is a particle used as a disjunctive, "either," "or," , or as a comparative, "than" or "rather than." It is (explam) also an exclamation, "hi!" and an adverb,(adv)  meaning "in truth" and "of a surety." It is used with comparative forms of adjective or with positive adjective implying a comparison.

τίς  [252 verses](irreg sg masc/fem nom) "What" is tis, which can mean "someone," "something," "any one," "everyone," "they [indefinite]," "many a one," "whoever," "anyone," "anything," "some sort," "some sort of," "each," "any," "the individual," "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who," "why," or "what." Plural, "who are" is τίνες ἐόντες.  It has specific meanings with certain prepositions, διὰ τί; for what reason? ἐκ τίνος; from what cause? ἐς τί; "to what point?"  to "what end? τί ὅτι "why it is that,"

βασιλεὺς [27 verses] (noun sg masc nom) "King" is basileus, which means a "king," "chief," "prince," "lord," "master," "a great man," and "the first and most distinguished of any class." It is a form of the word used for "kingdom."

πορευόμενος [54 verses](part sg pres mp masc nom) "Going is poreuomai (poreuo) which means , in the active voice, "make to go," "carry," "convey," and "bring." In the passive, it means to "go," "march," "depart," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT. Jesus uses it to mean "depart." He sometimes uses it in situations where it "depart from life" meaning comes into play.

ἑτέρῳ [21 verses](adj sg masc dat) "Another" is heteros, which means "one or the other of two," "the second," "the secondary," "the minor," "other things [of like kind]," "another," "different," "other than," "different from," "other than should be," and "in another or a different way." As an adverb, it means "in one or the other way," "differently," "otherwise than should be," "badly," and "wrongly."

βασιλεῖ [27 verses] (noun sg masc dat) "King" is basileus, which means a "king," "chief," "prince," "lord," "master," "a great man," and "the first and most distinguished of any class." It is a form of the word used for "kingdom."

συνβαλεῖν [1 verse](verb aor/fut inf act ) "To make" is symballo," "which means throw together," "dash together," "collect," "jumble up together," "to be profitable," "come together," "join," "unite," "make a contract with a person," "contribute," "converse," "bring men together in hostile sense," "join in fight," "compare," "reckon," "compute," "conclude," "infer," "conjecture," "interpret," "agree,"  and "arrange."

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "Into" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "in" (a position),  "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."With verbs of speaking, it is the person spoken "to." With time, a limit "until," or a duration "for," "throughout," or a date, "on," "at." Used with ek, it means "from...to."

πόλεμον  [4 verses](noun sg masc acc) "War" is from polemos, which means "war," "battle," or "fight."

οὐχὶ [23 verses](adv) "Not" is ouchi, an adverb which means "no," "no truly," "assuredly not," "not however," "nevertheless," "notwithstanding," "yet," "still," "never yet," "for not," "indeed," "for surely not," "no,—certainly not," "for I don't suppose," and "for in no manner." Sometimes it is used to create negative questions where a positive answer is expected.

καθίσας [15 verses](part sg aor act masc nom) "Sitteth...down" is kathizô, which means "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to post," "to take seats," "to convene," "to appoint," "to establish," "to put in a certain condition," "to reside," "to sink down," "to run aground [for ships]," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." From the Greek kata("down") hedraios ("to settle") .

πρῶτον [41 verses](adj sg neut nom) "First" is protos. In place, this means "before," "in front," and, as a noun, "the foremost." Of time, it means "former," "earlier," and, as a noun, "the initial." In order, it means "the first." In math, it means the prime numbers. Of rank or degree, it means "superior" or, as a noun, "the highest" or "the best."

βουλεύσεται [1 verse](verb 3rd sg fut/aor ind mid) "Consulteth" is bouleuōwhich means "take counsel, deliberate," "sit in council," "take counsel with oneself," "determine with oneself," and "resolve on."

εἰ [90 verses](conj) "whether" is ei, which is the particle used to express conditions "if" (with the indicative, implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect and direct questions, "whether." It also means "if ever," "in case," and "whenever." In citing a fact, it can mean "as sure as" or "since."  It is combined with various conjunctions to create derivative conditions. When appearing as εἰ δὲ (literally, "if however") the sense is "if this...then that." The construction εἰ δὲ μή . . means "otherwise." The construction  εἰ οὖν has the sense of "if so." However, it is also used to express a wish. After verbs of wonder, delight, indignation, disappointment, contentment, and similar emotions, it is use instead of ὅτι, to express the object of the feeling in a hypothetical form, "that" with the indicative (not subjunctive). After ὅτι, it introduces a quotation where we use quotation marks. With the future tense, it is used for emphasis, a warning, or an intention.  When this word is paired with the conjunction translated as "but" or "however," the structure works like an "if then" statement in English.  With verbs of desire and emotion and the indicative in the second clause, the sense is "that." With an imperative, it is used to express a wish. The sense is "I wish that." With the future tense indicative, it is used for emphasis, a warning, or an intention. The emphasis clause is after the main statement.

δυνατός  [9 verses](adj sg masc acc) "Be able" is from dynatos, which means "strong," "mighty," "possible," and "practicable."

ἐστιν  [614 verses] (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Be" is eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen,"  and "is possible." With the possessive (genitive) object, it means "is descended from," "is the type of," "belongs to," "is made of," "is a duty of," "is at the mercy of," or " is dependent on." With an indirect (dative) object, it means "have" where the subject and object are reversed.  "It is to him" becomes "it is his" or "he has it."  With the preposition,"into" (εἰς), the sense is "consist of." When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are."

ἐν [413 verses](prep) "In" is en, which means, with its usual indirect (dative) object, "in," "on," "at," "by," "among," "within," "surrounded by," "in one's hands," "in one's power," "during,"  and "with." With a direct (accusative) object, it means "into," "on," and "for." Referring to time, it means. "in the course of" or "during."

δέκα [11 verses](numeral ) "Ten" is from deka, which means the number ten.

χιλιάσιν [1 verse](noun pl fem dat) "Thousand" is chiliaswhich means "a thousand" or "a large number."

ὑπαντῆσαι  [2 verses] (verb aor inf act) "To meet" is apantaowhich means to "come or go to meet", "meet", "encounter" of a heavenly body, "meet", "agree to", "occur to one", and "fall in with". --

τῷ [252 verses](pron sg masc/fem dat) "What" is tis, which can mean "someone," "something," "any one," "everyone," "they [indefinite]," "many a one," "whoever," "anyone," "anything," "some sort," "some sort of," "each," "any," "the individual," "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who," "why," or "what." Plural, "who are" is τίνες ἐόντες.  It has specific meanings with certain prepositions, διὰ τί; for what reason? ἐκ τίνος; from what cause? ἐς τί; "to what point?"  to "what end? τί ὅτι "why it is that,"

μετὰ [103 verses](prep) "With" is meta, which means "with," "in the midst of," "among," "between," "in common," "along with," "by the aid of," "in one's dealings with," "into the middle of," "coming into," "in pursuit of," "after," "behind," "according to,"  "after," "behind,"  and "next afterward." With genitive,  it means generally, "with," "together with," "in the midst of," "among," "between." "in common," "along with," "by the aid of," and "in conjunction with." With genitive,  with pl. Nouns "in the midst of," "among," "between," " in common," "along with", of things, "in conjunction with,"  rarely of Time, "during ."With dative, "between," "among," "in company with," with a number "complete," and "over and above." generally, "among," "between,"  with both indirect (dative) and direct (accusative) object. With direct objects:  of motion, "into the middle of," "coming into or among," esp. where a number of persons is implied, in pursuit or quest of, of persons, "to go after," "in quest of," of sequence or succession,  of Place, "after," "behind," "on the far side of," of Time, "after," "next to," in order of Worth, Rank, etc., "next after," "following," "to be inferior to."  As a prefix, it means "of community," "in common with another,"  "in the midst of," "succession of time," "pursuit," "letting go," "after, behind," and "reversely."

εἴκοσι [1 verse](numeral) "Twenty" is eikosi, which means "twenty."

χιλιάδων [1 verse](noun pl fem dat) "Thousand" is chiliaswhich means "a thousand" or "a large number." --

ἐρχομένῳ  [98 verses] (part sg pres mp masc dat) "Comes" is  erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out," "to come," "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place.

ἐπ᾽ [138 verses](prep) "Against" is from epi, which means "on," "upon," "at," "by," "before," "across," "for," and "against." With a noun in the possessive, genitive, it means "upon," "on" but not necessarily of Place, "by (of persons)," "deep (with numbers)," "in the presence of," "towards," "in the time of," and "over (referring to a person of authority)." With a noun indirect object, dative, it means of place: "upon," "on," or "over," of people: "against (in a hostile sense)," regarding a situation: "towards" or "in reference to," of an accumulation: "upon," "after," "addition to," and "besides," of position: "after," "behind," "in dependence upon," and "in the power of," of time: "by," and "after," and. in a causal sense: "of the occasion or cause," "for" a person, an end, or purpose," "on condition that," and "for" (a price).  With the objective noun, an accusative, it means of place: "upon or on to a height," "up to," "as far as," "a little way," "a little," "towards," "to," in hostile sense: "against," of extension: "over," "over (a space)," of time: "for," "during," "up to" or "till," in a causal sense: "of (the object)," for (this purpose)," "as regards," "according to," and "by (this cause)." With verbs of perceiving, observing, and judging, it means "in the case of."

αὐτὸν [124 verses](pron/adj sg masc acc) "Him/It" is auton, is the masculine, accusative case of the third-person, singular adjective that is used as a pronoun. Masculine pronouns can refer to things as well as people, so it can be it."  The word also means "the same," and "of one's own accord." An accusative object of a preposition indicates movement towards something or a position reached as a result of that movement. Event may show the amount of time.  However, masculine pronouns refer to masculine nouns, not just masculine people so this word can mean "it" as well as "he." As a preposition's object indicates movement towards something or a position reached as a result of that movement. Events may show the amount of time.

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Sep 23 2024