Luke 18:3 And there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

A bereaved, however, was in that city there and she showed up before him saying, "Avenge me from this assailant of mine.

KJV : 

Luke 18:3 And there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, saying, Avenge me of mine adversary.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Except for the first words, a very straightforward verse with the Greek words in the same order as the KJV translation. It has one word that Jesus only uses in this story.

The Greek word translated as "and" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  

The verb "was" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are" but that is not the case here. The subject, "a widow" comes first.

"A widow" is an adjective that means "widowed" or more generally, "bereaved".  Christ uses it as a noun. 

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

The word translated as "that" is an adjective that highlights its noun as being in a specific place or time from a word that means "there." It appears after the word "city".

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and".

The word translated as "come" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. 

The word translated as "unto" means "towards", "before", "by reason of (for)," and "against."

The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

The word translated as "saying" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak." It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." It is in the form of an adjective, "saying".

"Avenge" is a Greek verb that means to "avenge", "punish", "decide" (a case), and "vindicate". Jesus uses it only in this story.

"Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

The word translated as "of" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

"Mine" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. 

"Adversary" is  an uncommon word for Jesus that means "opponent or adversary in a suit", "the defendant [primarily]," "the plaintiff," and, generally, "opponent," and "adversary."

Greek Vocabulary: 

χήρα ( adj sg fem nom ) "Widow" is from chera, which means "widow" and "bereaved."

δὲ (conj) "And" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἦν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Was" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen",  and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

ἐν (prep) "In" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τῇ πόλει ( noun sg fem dat ) "City" is polis, which means "city", "citadel", "one's city", "one's country", "community", "state", "state affairs," and "civic duties." -- The Greek word for "city" meant not only a city but a nation, culture, or a society. It worked something like the word "community" today.

ἐκείνῃ ( adj sg fem dat ) "That" is ekeinos, which means "the person there", "that person", "that thing", "in that case", "in that way", "at that place," and "in that manner."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἤρχετο (verb 3rd sg imperf ind mp) "Came" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place.

πρὸς (prep) "Unto" is pros, which means "on the side of", "in the direction of", "from (place)", "towards" "before", "in the presence of", "in the eyes of", "in the name of", "by reason of", "before (supplication)", "proceeding from (for effects)", "dependent on", "derivable from", "agreeable,""becoming", "like", "at the point of", "in addition to", "against," and "before."

αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

λέγουσα (part sg pres act fem nom) "Saying" is lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelled the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep."

Ἐκδίκησόν [uncommon]( verb 2nd sg aor imperat act ) "Avenge" is  ekdikeo, which means to "avenge", "punish", "decide" (a case), and "vindicate".

με (pron sg masc acc) "Me" is eme, which means "I", "me", and "my".

ἀπὸ (prep) "Of" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

τοῦ ἀντιδίκου [unocmmon]( adj sg masc gen ) "Adversary" is antidikos, which means "opponent or adversary in a suit", "the defendant [primarily]," "the plaintiff," and, generally, "opponent," and "adversary."

μου. (pro sg masc gen) "Mine" is mou, which mean "my," or "mine." --

Front Page Date: 

Oct 7 2018