Luke 18:4 And he would not for a while: but afterward he said within himself,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And he didn't consent over time with these things, however, he said within himself, "Even though, the Divine, I do not fear, nor a person do I respect.

KJV : 

Luke 18:4 And he would not for a while: but afterward he said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man;

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The literal Greek is much clearer to me than the KJV translation. Though it uses several slightly different figures of speech, they are all close to our own ways of expressing similar ideas.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

The Greek word translated as "he would" is not the same type of verb as "will" in English. This verbs primary purpose is to express consent and even a delight in doing something. It means "to consent" and "to be resolved to a purpose".  It is used here with the negative of fact, not of opinions. The fact is that he didn't consent to the widow's request. The sense is not that he didn't want to, which would use the negative of opinion.

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence  captures the same idea.

The two words translated as "for a while" literally mean "over time".

The word translated as "for" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

"A while" is from the Greek word that means "time", or "a definite period of time".

The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it usually falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  Here, it falls either in the first or third position in the phrase, which is unusual but could happen.

"Afterward" is from two Greek words meaning literally "with these things". It clearly seems to refer to what the judge did not agree with not a period of lime.  "Afterward" is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit. Untranslated is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. Its form is a plural, neutral object, so "these things".

"He said" is from the Greek verb that means "to say" and "to speak" also.

The word translated as "within" also means "within", "with," or "among."

"Himself" is a special reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself," and so on.

"Though" is two Greek words that, when used together in this order mean "even though." The two words mean literally "if also". The "if" here expresses a condition but it means nothing regarding whether that condition is met or not. The Greek word  "and" is also is used to add emphasis, "just", "even" and "also". When used as a pair, these two words mean either "even if" (when the "and" comes first" or "even though", when the "if" comes first.

"I fear" is translated from a Greek word that means "to terrify" and "to put to flight," but in the passive, it means to be put to flight and be frightened. When applied to people, it means to "be in awe of" or "dread." It is not a command, as you would think from the KJV.

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence  captures the same idea.

The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

The Greek word for "nor" is an adverb that means "not at all" or "not even". As a conjunction, it works as both parts of the "neither/nor" constructions, but it is also the conjunction used with this "even though" construction.

"Regard" is a Greek verb that means "to turn [something] about", "to make one turn," and, as a metaphor, for "putting one to shame." In its passive form, it means "to turn [yourself] about", "to feel misgivings", "to hesitate", "to give heed", "to respect," and "to reverence." Again, the form is the middle voice present, not himself respecting.

The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

οὐκ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἤθελεν (verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "He would" is thelo, which as a verb means "to be willing (of consent rather than desire)", "to wish", "to ordain", "to decree", "to be resolved to a purpose" "to maintain", "to hold", "to delight in, and "will (too express a future event with inanimate objects)." As a participle, it means "being willing" or, adverbially, "willingly," and "gladly".

ἐπὶ (prep) "For" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against."

χρόνον, ( noun sg masc acc ) "A while" is chronos, which means "time", "a definite period of time", "period", "date", "term", "lifetime", "age", "season", "delay," and "tense."

μετὰ (prep) Untranslated is meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to,"  "after", "behind",  and "next afterward."

ταῦτα (adj pl neut acc) "Afterward" is tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these", "this", "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why."

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

εἶπεν ( verb 3rd sg aor ind act ) "He said" is eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer."

ἐν (prep) "Within" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

ἑαυτῷ ( adj sg masc dat ) "Himself" is heautou, is a reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself", "itself" "themselves," and "ourselves." It is an alternative to autos.

Εἰ (conj) "If" is ei, which is the particle used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect questions, "whether." It also means "if ever", "in case," and "whenever." It is combined with various conjunctions to create derivative conditions.

καὶ (conj/adv) Untranslated is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τὸν θεὸν ( noun sg masc acc ) "God" is theos, which means "God," "divine," and "Deity."

οὐ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

φοβοῦμαι ( verb 1st sg pres ind mp ) "Fear" is phobeo, which means to "put to flight." "terrify", "alarm", "frighten," and in the passive, "be put to flight", "be seized with fear," be frightened", "stand in awe of" (of persons)", "dread (of persons)," and "fear or fear about something." --

οὐδὲ (partic) "Neither" is oude, which, as a conjunction, means "but not", "neither", and "nor." As an adverb, it means "not at all" and "not even."

ἄνθρωπον ( noun sg masc acc ) "Of man" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἐντρέπομαι, ( verb 1st sg pres ind mp ) "Regarding" is from entrepo, which means "to turn [something] about", "to make one turn," and, as a metaphor, for "putting one to shame." In its passive form , it means "to turn [yourself] about", "to feel misgivings", "to hesitate", "to give heed", "to respect," and "to reverence."

Front Page Date: 

Oct 8 2018