Luke 19:13 And he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 19:13 And he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy till I come.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

He summons, however, ten bond-slaves of his own. He gives them ten sums of money, and he says before them to do business themselves with this, "I am showing up." 

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This is a series of short sentences, but to make the form of the words work, the last one must be translated differently that the KJV to fit the words and their forms.

The Greek word translated as "and" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The term translated as "he called" is like our word "call" because it means both "to summon" and also "to name."

"His" is a special reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself," and so on.

"Ten" is the Greek word for the numeral "ten". 

The noun translated as "servant" means "slave." It is translated as "servant" to update the Bible.

There is no "and" here. The next word starts a new sentence.

The verb translated as "delivered" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English. Here it is an indirect object.

"Ten" is the Greek word for the numeral "ten". 

"Pounds" is the Greek word for a "a weight", "a sum of money", and the amount of about "100 drachmas".

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

"Said" is from the Greek verb that means "to say" and "to speak" also.

The word translated as "to" means "towards", "before", "by reason of (for)," and "against."  Normally, you would expect to see a dative here if he was just speaking "to him". Using this preposition means he said it in front of them.

The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

"Occupy" is a verb used uniquely by Jesus here that  means to "busy oneself", "take trouble", "to be engaged in business", "spend one's time in business", "take in hand", "treat laboriously", "be engaged in", "take in hand", and "treat laboriously", The form is not a common. This is an infinitive "to busy themselves" or "to do business for yourself". This seems to be part of the narrative, the infinitive pairing with the "he said...to busy themselves".

There is no Greek word "till" in the Greek source we use.

There are two untranslated words here that mean "with this". The word for "with" also means "in", "within", "with," or "among." The word for "this" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. It is either masculine or neutral, which would only fit the infinitive verb before it. busy

The word translated as "I come" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas.  This seems to be the only thing he seems to speak directly.

 

 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καλέσας ( part sg aor act masc nom ) "He called" is kaleo, which means "call", "summon", "invite", "invoke", "call by name," and "demand."

δὲ (conj/adv) "And" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

δέκα (numeral) "Ten" is from deka, which means the number ten.

δούλους  ( noun pl masc acc ) "The servant" is doulos, which means a "slave," a "born bondsman," or "one made a slave."

ἑαυτοῦ ( adj sg masc gen ) "His" is heautou, is a reflexive pronoun that means "himself", "herself", "itself" "themselves," and "ourselves." It is an alternative to autos.

ἔδωκεν ( verb 3rd sg aor ind act ) "Delivered" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." --

αὐτοῖς (adj pl masc dat) "Them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

δέκα (numeral) "Ten" is from deka, which means the number ten. -- "Ten" is the Greek word for the numeral "ten". 

μνᾶς [uncommon](noun pl fem acc) "Pounds" is mna, which means "a weight", "a sum of money", and "100 drachmas".

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -

εἶπεν ( verb 3rd sg aor ind act ) "said" is eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer."

πρὸς (prep) "Unto" is pros, which means "on the side of", "in the direction of", "from (place)", "towards" "before", "in the presence of", "in the eyes of", "in the name of", "by reason of", "before (supplication)", "proceeding from (for effects)", "dependent on", "derivable from", "agreeable,""becoming", "like", "at the point of", "in addition to", "against," and "before."

αὐτοὺς (adj pl masc acc) "Them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

πραγματεύσασθαι [unique](verb aor inf mp) "Occupy" is pragmateuomai, which means to "busy oneself", "take trouble", "to be engaged in business", "spend one's time in business", "take in hand", "treat laboriously", "be engaged in", "take in hand", "treat laboriously", and "be engaged in."

ἐν (prep) "Untranslated" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". --

(pron sg masc/neut dat) "Untranslated" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

ἔρχομαι. ( verb 1st sg pres ind mp ) "I come" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. -

Related Verses: 

Nov 6 2018