Luke 19:43 For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Because they shall arrive, times, upon you and they surround, those hated of yours, a palisade and they shall encircle you from all quarters.

KJV : 

Luke 19:43 For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Many unique and uncommon words here. The verbs are all in complicated forms that create a rhyme. Jesus often uses unique words to accomplish these rhyming forms.

The word translated as "for" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

The Greek word translated as "the days" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime." There is no "the" before it, but since it is plural the article would usually be used in English.

The word translated as "shall come" is a complicated one because it indicates a "coming" that has been completed, that is, "to arrive" or, even, "to be present." As a metaphor, it means "to be a follower." This is NOT a form of the word usually translated as "come" in the Gospels, which is discussed in this article.

The word translated as "upon" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

The "thee" here is singular. This is uncommon for Christ when he is teaching, meaning that the line was likely addressed to an individual instead of all his listeners. 

The Greek word translated as "that" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

The word translated as " thine" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

The Greek word translated as "enemies" means "the hated", "the hateful", "the hostile", "the enemy", "the alienated," and "the hating."

"Shall cast about " is a verb that means "to throw around", "to put on", "to encompass", "to surround", "to bring under one's power" and so on. The form could be the future or a subjunctive.

"A trench" is a Greek noun that Jesus only uses here which means "a pointed stake", "a pale" as part of a fortification, "a palisade", and a "cutting" from a tree, specifically the olive. The sense here is clearly a palisade, a wall of pointed posts.

The "thee" here is singular. This is uncommon for Christ when he is teaching, meaning that the line was likely addressed to an individual instead of all his listeners. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

"Compass...round" is a verb that Jesus only uses here that means to "encircle", "encompass", "go around", and "surround an enemy".   Like the previous verb, form could be the future or a subjunctive. This creates a rhyme.

The "thee" here is singular. This is uncommon for Christ when he is teaching, meaning that the line was likely addressed to an individual instead of all his listeners.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

"Keep in" is an uncommon verb that means to be "joined together", to have shoulder "bent in or contracted" over the chest, and "to collapse". The general sense is to be constrained by being pressed upon.  Like the previous two verbs, form could be the future or a subjunctive. This creates a rhyme.

The "thee" here is singular. This is uncommon for Christ when he is teaching, meaning that the line was likely addressed to an individual instead of all his listeners. 

"On every side" is  an adverb only used here that means "from all quarters" and "from every side".

Greek Vocabulary: 

ὅτι (adv/conj) "For" is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

ἥξουσιν  (3rd pl aor subj act or 3rd pl fut ind act ) "Shall come" is heko, which means "to arrive", "to have come", "to be present", "to have reached a point, "to pass though a point (geometry)", "to have come back", "returned", "to have come to table", "concern", "relate to", "to depend upon," and, as a metaphor, "to be a follower." --

ἡμέραι ( noun pl fem nom ) "Days" is hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

ἐπὶ (prep) "Upon" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against."

σε (pron 2nd sg acc) "Thee" is from se, the second person singular accusative pronoun.

καὶ (conj/adv) "That" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

παρεμβαλοῦσιν ( verb 3rd pl aor subj act or verb 3rd pl fut ind) "Shall cast" is periballo, which means "to throw around", "to put on", "to encompass", "to surround", "to bring under one's power", "amplify", "expand", "appropriate mentally", "comprehend", "to excel", "to surpass", "throw beyond," and "beat in throwing." In the passive, it means "to have put around oneself." "to be involved in," and "to have come into possession of one."

οἱ ἐχθροί (adj pl masc nom) "Enemies" is echthros, which means "the hated", "the hateful", "the hostile", "the enemy", "the alienated," and "the hating."

σου (adj sg masc gen) "Thine" is sou which means "of you" and "your." 

χάρακά [unique]( noun sg masc acc ) "A trench" is charax, which means "a pointed stake", "a pale" as part of a fortification, "a palisade", and a "cutting" from a tree, specifically the olive.

σοι (pron 2nd sg dat) "The" is soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you". -- The word for "you" is the indirect object form of the pronoun. 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

περικυκλώσουσίν [unique]( verb 3rd pl fut ind act  or verb 3rd pl aor subj act) "Compass...round" is perikykloō, which means to "encircle", "encompass", "go around", and "surround an enemy". 

σε (pron 2nd sg acc) "Thee" is from se  the second person pronoun. -- The word translated as "you" is objective form of the second person pronoun.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

συνέξουσίν [uncommon]( verb 3rd pl fut ind act ) "Keep in" is from synecho, which means to be "joined together", to have shoulder "bent in or contracted" over the chest, and "to collapse". The general sense is to be constrained by being pressed upon. 

σε (pron 2nd sg acc) "Thee" is from se  the second person pronoun. -- The word translated as "you" is objective form of the second person pronoun.

πάντοθεν, [unique](adv) "On every side" is from pantothen, which means "from all quarters" and "from every side".

Front Page Date: 

Nov 25 2018