Luke 20:25 Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Well then, give back "any things", of Caesar to Caesar, and "any things", of the Divine to the Divine.

KJV : 

Luke 20:25 Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This is one of those verse where Jesus demonstrates both his depth of understanding and his cleverness with words. The original Greek is much shorter, because it doesn't have the cumbersome phrase, "the things which are" in it, but instead, a single short word. This verse follows the common pattern of Jesus's sayings, repeating two phrases with one change between them. Here the duplicated phrase also repeats its key word.

This version has a unique word translated as "therefore" in it. The Matthew version uses the Greek word commonly translated as "therefore."

One key different between the Greek and the KJV is that the word translated as "the things" actually can mean "everything" in the plural. So one sense is "everything of Caesar's" and "everything of the Divine."

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Τοίνυν [unique](particle) "Therefore" is toinyn, which means "therefore", "accordingly", and, in dialogue to introduce an answer, well then".

Ἀπόδοτε (verb 2nd pl aor imperat act) "Render" is from apodidomi which means "to give back", "to restore," and "to deliver." It has the economic sense of "to sell" or "to give something for one's own profit." It begins with apo the preposition of separation and origin, the idea of "from" in English, didômi which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over," and "to describe."

τὰ (irreg pl neut acc) "The things which are" is from tis which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "they [indefinite]", "many a one", "whoever", "anyone", "anything", "some sort", "some sort of", "each", "any", "the individual", "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what." -- The Greek word translated as "some" in the singular means "anyone", "someone," and "anything." In the plural, it means "some", "they," and "those." -- The word translated as "the things which are" means primarily "anything" or "anyone."

Καίσαρος (noun sg masc gen) "Caesar" is from Kaisar (Kaisar), which means "Caesar" primarily Julius but also Augustus and, generally, "the emperor."

Καίσαρι (noun sg masc dat) "Caesar" is from Kaisar, which means "Caesar" primarily Julius but also Augustus and, later, generally, "the emperor."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τὰ (irreg pl neut acc) "The things which are" is from tis which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "they [indefinite]", "many a one", "whoever", "anyone", "anything", "some sort", "some sort of", "each", "any", "the individual", "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what."

τοῦ  (article sg masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

θεοῦ (noun sg masc gen) "God" is from theos, which means "God," "divine," and "Deity."

τῷ (article sg masc dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

θεῷ. (noun sg masc dat) "God" is from theos, which means "God," "divine," and "Deity."

KJV Analysis: 

Render The word translated as "render" means "to give back." In a financial sense, to "pay back." This word is translated "deliver" and "reward" elsewhere in the NT.

therefore The Greek word translated as "therefore" is a word used uniquely here by Jesus. It means "well, then" when answering a question. It starts the verse. Matthew has a common word meaning "therefore" in this position.

unto  -- This word comes from the dative case of the following word(s) that requires the addition of a preposition in English: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

Caesar -- The Greek spelling of "Caesar" primarily  means Julius but also Augustus and, generally, "the Roman emperor."

the things -- The word translated as "the things" means primarily "anything" or "anyone." In the plural means "everything", "some", "they," and "those." Here, it is plural.

which be -- There is no Greek word(s) that are translated as "which are" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used. It was added for clarity.

Caesar's; -- The Greek spelling of "Caesar" primarily  means Julius but also Augustus and, generally, "the Roman emperor." The apostrophe "s" is from the genitive case, "of "Caesar."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

unto -- This word comes from the dative case of the following word(s) that requires the addition of a preposition in English: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect.

untranslated -- The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God -- -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

the things -- The word translated as "the things" means primarily "anything" or "anyone." In the plural means "everything", "some", "they," and "those." Here, it is plural.

which be -- There is no Greek word(s) that are translated as "which are" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used. It was added for clarity.

untranslated -- The untranslated word is the Greek definite article.The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God's. -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods. The apostrophe "s" is from the genitive case, "of "Caesar."

Front Page Date: 

Dec 13 2018