Mark 13:19 For in those days shall be affliction,

Greek Verse: 

Literal Translation: 

There are going to be, consequently, these times, those: a pressure such as has not happened such as this from a first founding, the one he founded, the Divine, until this now.  And never should happen.

KJV Verse: 

Mar 13:19 For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The is no "in" before "these days." These words are in the form of the subject of the verse.

A couple of unusual and uncommon terms from the same root appear here. The term translated as "creation" is used by Jesus only one other time other than this verse and its Matthew parallel. In that instance, it is translated awkwardly as "creature.."  This word is used primarily to refer to the founding of states and nations. The word translated as "created" is the verb from of the same word and it used by Jesus only here. It means to "people" and "to found." In the original Greek, these verse reads more specifically as referring to the founding and ending of the Jewish state. The term translated as "affliction" means pressure and oppression. The word translated as "such as" only appears in Jesus's words here.

All of these uncommon words are more common in the Septuagint, the Greek Old Testament.  This verse has a lot in common with the Septuagint version of  Deu 4:32 but without introduction regarding  the pressure or tribulation. That section of Deuteronomy deals with the found of Israel. 

The "was" and the FINAL "shall be" here are a word that means "becomes" or, in the case of describing events as we have hear, "happens." It is not the verb "to be," which actually starts the sentence as the first "shall be."

Greek Vocabulary: 

ἔσονται ( verb 3rd pl fut ind mid) "shall be" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen",  and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

γὰρ (partic) "For" comes from gar which is the introduction of a clause explaining a reason or explanation: "for", "since," and "as." In an abrupt question, it means "why" and "what."

αἱ (article pl fem nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἡμέραι (noun pl fem nom) "Days" is hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

ἐκεῖναι (article pl fem nom) "Those ones there" is ekeinos (kakeinos), which means "the person there", "that person", "that thing", "in that case", "in that way", "at that place," and "in that manner."

"θλίψις (noun sg fem nom)  "Affliction" is thlipsis, which means "pressure", "crushing", and "castration". It is a metaphor for "affliction"and "oppression."

οἵα [2 times]( adj sg fem nom ) "Such as" is from hoios, which means "such as", "of what sort", "kind of," and can imply a fitness or capability of a thing.

οὐ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

γέγονεν ( verb 3rd sg perf ind act ) "Was" is ginomai, which means "to become", "to come into being", of things "to be produced," of events "take place", "come to pass", "to be engaged in", math "to be multiplied into", "become one of", "turn into".and "to be." It means changing into a new state of being. It is the complementary opposite of the verb "to be" (eimi)which indicates existence in the same state.

τοιαύτη ( adj sg fem nom ) "Of such" is from toioutos, which means "such as this", "so great a thing", "such a condition", "such a reason", "and suchlike." -- "Of such" is an adjective that means "such as this", "so great a thing", "such a condition", "such a reason", "and suchlike." Jesus used this word eight times. Five of those times, he is describing children.

ἀπ᾽ (prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

ἀρχῆς ( noun sg fem gen) "Beginning" is arche, which means "beginning", "origin", "first principles", "first place of power", "empire," and "command." This is the word from which we get both "archbishop," primal bishops who can consecrate other bishops, and "archeology," the study of ancient.

κτίσεως [3 times]( noun sg fem gen ) "Creation" is from ktisis, which means "founding", "settling", "created thing", "creature," and "authority created." It is NOT the word for the creation of the universe, which we all know is genesis. This word only appears in Mark.

ἣν ( pron sg fem acc ) "Which" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

ἔκτισεν [unique]( verb 3rd sg aor ind ) "Created" is a kitzo that means to "populate", "found", "build", "produce", "bring into being," and "make."

(article sg masc nom) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

θεὸς (noun sg masc nom) "God" is theos, which means "God," the Deity."

ἕως (conj) "Unto" is heos which means "until", "till," and "in order that" and "up to the point that."

τοῦ (article sg neut gen) "This" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

νῦν (adv) "Time" is nyn (nun), which means "now", "at the present moment", "at the present time", "just now", "presently," and "as it is."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you).A Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

οὐ μὴ (partic) "Neither" is ou me, the two forms of Greek negative used together. Ou is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. Mê (me) is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

γένηται (verb 3rd sg aor subj mid) "Shall be" is ginomai, which means "to become", "to come into being", of things "to be produced," of events "take place", "come to pass", "to be engaged in", math "to be multiplied into", "become one of", "turn into".and "to be." It means changing into a new state of being. It is the complementary opposite of the verb "to be" (eimi)which indicates existence in the same state.

KJV Analysis: 

For --The word translated as "for" introduces a reason or explanation so "because" and, in questions, "why."  To prevent a run-on sentence, it can be translated as "this is why" or "this is because..." to start a new sentence. However, since this word always appears in the second position, it is more like an aside remark like, "consequently" or "as a cause". 

in -- There is no Greek words that can be translated as "it" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used. It was added for clarity.

those --The word translated as "those" is an adjective that highlights its noun as in a specific place from a word that means "there."

untranslated -- The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

days -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."  This word is in the form of a subject.

shall -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- The verb "be" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. This is the first word in the verse.  When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are."  This is plural.

affliction, -- The Greek word translated as "affliction" means "pressure," which is translated as a metaphor for "oppression." Since it primarily means pressure in the sense of "crushing" (and "castration"), it is a more colorful word than the words we used to describe a time of difficulty. Prior to Christ's use, it appears in Greek literature more as a scientific term than a social description. It is translation as "tribulation" in Matthew version of this verse.

such as -- "Such as" is an adjective that means "such as", "of what sort", "kind of," and can imply a fitness or capability of a thing. This word is only used by Jesus here and in parallel in Matthew.

was -- The word translated as "be" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Jesus, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state. )

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

the  -- There is no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used. When a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

beginning -- "Beginning" is a noun that means "beginning", "origin", "first principles", "first place of power", "empire," and "command." This is the word from which we get both "archbishop," primal bishops who can consecrate other bishops, and "archeology," the study of ancient history.

of -- This word comes from the genitive case of the following word(s) that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

the -- There is no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used. When a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

creation "Creation" is an uncommon noun which means "founding", "settling", "created thing", "creature," and "authority created." It is NOT the word for the creation of the universe, which we all know is genesis.

which -- The word translated as "which" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

untranslated -- The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

created -- "Created" is a verb Jesus only uses here that means to "populate", "found", "build", "produce", "bring into being," and "make."

unto -- The word translated as "unto" means "until" but it also means "in order that."

this -- The word translated as "this" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

time, -- The Greek adverb translated as "time" means "now", "at the present moment","presently," and "as it is."  It is not either of the words usually translated as "time," one of which is the "days" above.

neither -- The "neither" here is both of the Greek negatives used together. Greek has two negatives, one objective, one subjective. The use of both together is more extreme, like saying "you cannot really think."   When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words. This not the standard word transalted as "neither."

shall -- This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the following verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" phrase. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form. ]

be. -- The word translated as "be" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Jesus, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state. When applied to events, this words works like our "happen."

Wordplay: 

Christ plays off two meanings of the word, ἔκτισεν, which can mean either to build or start something, specifically a settlement or nation, or to settle, a debt, that is, pay it off in full.  This gives the sense that the destruction of Israel being foretold is as a "settlement" of a debt owed for its creation. The phrase contrasts verbs for being with those for coming or not coming into existence.

Related Verses: 

Front Page Date: 

Dec 24 2019