Mark 7:23 All these evil things come from within...

KJV Verse: 

Mark 7:23 All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

All these [are] the ones worthless. From within it marches itself out and it shares/"makes common" a person.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verses starts with a series of plural adjectives ("all,"these," "evil,") in the form of the subject of the sentence, but the verb here is singular not plural. This means an "are" is assumed to equate these initial adjectives. The verbs  that follow, however , "come out" and "defile" are both singular.  This makes it likely that the verb is a response to a question rather than a grammatical mistake on Jesus's part.

This verse is the switch from the term used for "evil" in Marthew 7:21, which was a Greek word that means "evil" and to a different word here that "worthless" or "base." This difference is discussed  extensively in this page.

KJV Analysis: 

All -- The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way", "on every side," and "altogether." This word is plural and in the form of a subject or object, which is the same for a neutral adjective or noun. 

these -- The "these" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why." It is not typically used as an adjective. This word is plural and in the form of a subject or object, which is the same for a neutral adjective or noun. 

untranslated -- The word untranslated is "the," the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or. in the plural as it is here, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.  This word is plural and in the form of a subject or object, which is the same for a neutral article. 

evil -- The word translated as "evil" means "second-rate" or "worthless." This article explores it meaning in more detail. It is an adjective, but when used as a noun, therefore, "what is worthless." This word is plural and in the form of a subject or object, which is the same for a neutral adjective or noun. 

things -- There is no Greek word for "things." It comes from the neutral, plural form of the previous adjectives.

Since the following verb does not match these "subjects," the verb "to be" ("are") is assumed to connect them. This word better as a verb statement than a written sentence.

come   -- "Come" is a verb that means literally, "to make to go or carry out of" and is translated regularly as "to make to go out of", "to fetch out," and "to march out," but in modern English, we would probably say "exit" here. The verb is singular and either passive or a middle form where somthing acts on itself.

from within, -- "From within" is the adverb meaning "inwardly."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

defile   -- "Defile" is a verb that means "to communicate", "to impart", "to share." Only in Matthew and Mark is it translated as "defile." However, the Judaic idea of "holiness" is connected with having something "set apart" for the Divine, while what is shared among people is consider "common" instead of holy. So sharing something, "making it common," does "defile" something that should be dedicated to the Divine. The Latin word translated this verse in the Latin Vulgate also means "communicate. Only in the English translation, does it become "defiled"

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man. -- The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

Greek Vocabulary: 

πάντα (adj pl neut nom) "All" is pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether."

ταῦτα ( adj pl neut nom ) "These things" is tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these", "this", "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why."

τὰ (article pl neut nom ) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

πονηρὰ ( adj pl neut nom ) "Evil" is poneros, which means "burdened by toil", "useless," and "worthless." In a moral sense, it means "worthless", "base," and "cowardly."

ἔσωθεν (adv) "From within" is esothen, which means "from within" and "inward."

ἐκπορεύεται ( verb 3rd sg pres ind mp ) "Comes" is from ekporeuô (ekporeuomai), which means "to make to go out", "to fetch out," and "to march out."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

κοινοῖ ( verb 3rd sg pres ind act ) "Defile" is koinoo, which means "to communicate", "to impart", "to share," and "to make common."  Only in Matthew and Mark is it translated as "defile" from the idea that to make something "common" is to defile it. In the original Latin translation of the NT, this word is translated as communicare, which is the source of our word "communicate."

τὸν (article sg masc acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἄνθρωπον. ( noun sg masc acc ) "Of man" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

The Spoken Version: 

"All these? The ones worthless."

"Where does this worthlessness come from?"

"From within. It marches itself out and it communicates a person."

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

This brings us to the contrast in this series of verses between what is inside (esothen) and what is inside (exothen). Spirit and thoughts are inside, while relationships and  actions are on the outside. Spirit and thought are the motivation. Relationships and actions are the end result. Of these four, only spirit is eternal and transcendent. Our thoughts, relationships, and actions are temporary.

Aug 12 2019