Mark 14:21 The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him:

KJV Verse: 

Mark 14:21 The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! good were it for that man if he had never been born.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Because truly, the child of humanity departs as it has written itself concerning him. Too bad, however, for that man by whom the child of humanity turns himself in. It was worthy for him if he had not really been conceived, that man.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This long verse is interesting because it is identical to Matthew 26:24. This is unusual, especially for quotes from the Last Supper, which do not seem recorded as much as remembered by different people. This verse starts with a different word that is untranslated in the KJV. Interestingly, the KJV of this verse does translate a  word is near the beginning of the verse that means "indeed", "certainly", "surely," and "truly" that was not translated in Matthew.

The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

"Indeed" is a Greek word used express certainty that means "indeed", "certainly", "surely," and "truly." This is the Greek counterpart of the Aramaic word, amen. More about that word and this in this article.

"Goeth" is from a Greek verbal command that means literally "go under" or "bring under," but Christ usually uses it to mean "go away" and "depart."

"It is written" is a verb that means "to mark", "to express by written characters", and "to write down [a law]". However, the form of the word is not passive but a form where the subject acts on itself in a way completed in the past, "it has written itself."

The Greek word translated as "of" means It means "around" when referring to a place, but, in this context, it means "about", "concerning", "on account of," and "in regard to." This is the way Christ usually uses it.

The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. When used in writing, it creates complex sentences, but when spoken, it makes a good pausing point so that an important or humorous word can follow.

"Woe" is from an exclamation of grief, meaning "woe" or "alas." However, Christ seems to use it somewhat humorously. Most verses in which it appears have the hallmarks of Christ's humor. Today we would say "so sad " or "too bad." The word is very like the Jewish, "oy veh" which can be used to express sorry but with is more commonly used cynically. More about this phrase in this article on Christ's humor, under the subtitle, "exaggeration."

The word translated as "man" is the same as the "man" in the "son of man." It is in the form of an indirect object, which we would usually use "for" in English here.

The word translated as "through" means "through," in the midst of," or "by (a cause)." Here the sense is a cause.

The word translated as "whom" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

The "son of man" here is the same as the one used earlier. Both are subjects of their sentences.

"Is betrayed" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is in the form where the subject acts on himself, not a passive form. It has a lot of the same sense as we used "turned in" in English. It is the same word used in the previous two verses. The various biblical translations translate being it as "betray" or "delivered over" depending on the context. It has less of a sense of "betray," though giving someone over is similar to turning someone it. In looking through all the other uses of the word, he uses it consistently to mean being given over to authorities, most often state authorities. that is not the translation used for being given over to Christ by God or falling into the hands of authorities through court action. The word, betrayal, adds a lot of baggage to the discussion. It raises an issue of that Christ's original words did not raise: whether turning over someone to authorities is itself a dishonest act.

The "it had been" verb here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It is in a form that is usually translated as the past, "it was."

The word translated as "good" referring to the "fruit" means "beautiful", "noble," or "of good quality." It is different than the verb above. See this article on the real Greek meaning of the terms translated as "good" and "evil." Generally, "valuable" and "worthy" work in most of the places it is used, but perhaps not here.

"For that man" is from a word that normally acts as a pronoun (either "he" or "it", here). It could refer back to either "man" or "good." It is in a form that is usually an indirect object (to him) but which can also be the instrumental dative ("by it/him"), a benefit ( "...for it/him"); or possession ("...of his/its own").

The "if" here expresses a condition but it means nothing regarding whether that condition is met or not. It also means "if ever" and "whenever."

"He" is from the word translated as "man" elsewhere in this verse. The "man" was used in the previous phrase where it was the pronoun and the pronoun is used here, where it is the noun.

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

The word translated as "born" means "to beget", "to bring forth", "to produce from oneself", and "to engender." The sense is "had not been conceived."

Greek Vocabulary: 

ὅτι  (adv/conj) Untranslated is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore." -- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

(article sg masc nom ) "The" is the Greek article, "the," which usually precedes a noun. Here it is separated from its noun by a particle.

μὲν (part) "Indeed" is men, which is generally used to express certainty and means "indeed", "certainly", "surely," and "truly."

υἱὸς (noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ὑπάγει (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Goeth" is from hupago, which means "to lead under", "to bring under", "to bring a person before judgment", "to lead on by degrees", "to take away from beneath", "to withdraw", "to go away", "to retire", "to draw off," and "off with you."

καθὼς (adv) "As" is from kathos, which means "even as", "how", and, in relating to time, "as" and "when."

γέγραπται (verb 3rd sg perf ind mp) "It is written" is from grapho which means "to mark", "to express by written characters", "to write a letter", "to write down [a law]", "to proscribe", "to ordain", "to write for oneself", "to enroll oneself", "to draw signs", "to describe a figure" "to brand," and "to indict."

περὶ  (prep) "Of" is from peri, which means "round about (Place)", "around", "about", "concerning", "on account of", "in regard to", "before", "above", "beyond," and "all around."

αὐτοῦ, (adj sg masc gen ) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

οὐαὶ (exclam) "Woe" is from ouai, which is an exclamation of pain or anger meaning "woe" or "alas" but it can be used sarcastically. --

δὲ (conj) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ (noun sg masc dat) "Unto...the man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἐκείνῳ (adj sg masc dat) "That" is from ekeinos (kakeinos), which means "the person there", "that person", "that thing", "in that case", "in that way", "at that place," and "in that manner."

δι᾽ (prep)  "Through" is from dia which means "through", "in the midst of", "in a line (movement)", "throughout (time)", "by (causal)", "among," and "between."

οὗ (pron sg masc gen) "Whom" is from hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

υἱὸς (noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

παραδίδοται: (verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Is betrayed" is from paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow." --

καλὸν (adj sg neut nom) "Good" is from kalos, which means "beautiful", "good", "of fine quality", "noble," and "honorable." It is most often translated as "good" juxtaposed with "evil" in the New Testament, but the two ideas are closer to "wonderful" and "worthless", "noble" and "base."

ἦν (verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "It had been" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible."

αὐτῷ (adj sg neut/masc dat ) "That man" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it."

εἰ (conj) "If" is from ei, which is the particle used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect questions, "whether." It also means "if ever", "in case," and "whenever." It is combined with various conjunctions to create derivative conditions.

οὐκ (partic)  "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἐγεννήθη (verb 3rd sg aor ind pass) "Born" is from gennaô (gennao), which means "to beget", "to bring forth", "to produce from oneself", "to create," and "to engender." This is the causal form of gignomai, which is translated as "done" in the NT, but which comes closer in meaning to "become."

ἄνθρωπος (noun sg masc nom) "He" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἐκεῖνος. (adj sg masc nom) "That" is from ekeinos (kakeinos), which means "the person there", "that person", "that thing", "in that case", "in that way", "at that place," and "in that manner." --

 

Related Verses: 

Apr 1 2019