Matthew 16:27 For the Son of man shall come

KJV Verse: 

Mat 16:27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

This is because the child of humanity is [always] destined to arrive, with the recognition of the Father, among his messengers. Also, he is going to pay each back individually concerning his business.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

When you look at the original in Greek, it tells a very different story than the common translation, a statement that is more consistent with what has actually happened over the next two thousand years. It starts with what could be a joke or a prophecy, but not in the way you expect. The most interesting word a seemingly innocent "shall" in this phrase. Then there is a confusion

The word translated as "for" can be treated as supporting a dependent clause, or, in written English, as "this is because..." to start a new sentence.

The "son of man" phrase is examined in more detail in this article. The word translated as "son" more generally means "child." The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

The word translated simple as "shall" is actually a loaded term with two very different meaning. It means both "to be destined" and, more interestingly, "to always going to do without actually doing." It is not an indication of the future tense as the "shall" later in the verse is. This verb is in the present tense, so currently "is destined" or "always on the verge of."

"Come" is the verb that means "to set out" and "to arrive at." There is an article here about how Christ uses this word. It is a little like we use the phrase "he is on his way," which can mean either that he is coming or going with no direct reference to the position of the speaker. Here it could mean that Christ goes or comes.

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

"Glory" is from a noun meaning "expectation" and "opinion." More about this term in this article. It came to mean "reputuation," especially "good repute", "honor", "glory" and rarely "ill repute." The closest concept is to the way Christ uses it is often the one of "recognition," though its primary meaning of "expectation" works a well here.

"Angels" is from a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT. It is the noun form of the verb meaning "laughing loudly," but the form of the word doesn't fit the context.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

"He shall reward" is from a verb that doesn't mean "reward." It means "to give back." In a financial sense, to "pay back." It is used to for an activity or for work for which we are compensated. Hence, the idea of "paying back." that means "to give back", "to assign", "to deliver over," and "to sell." It has the sense of a fair exchange not simply a reward as such. The "shall" here indicates that this in the future tense. It isn't anything like the "shall" above.

The word translated as "according to" means both "individually" and "concerning."

"Works" is translated from a Greek word that Christ only uses here. It is not the word that Christ usually uses that is translated as "works" or "deeds." It is also singular, not plural. This word has much more the meaning fo a financial transation, and means "doing", "transaction", "business", "action", "recovery of debts," and "practical ability."

Greek Vocabulary: 

μέλλει (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Shall" is from mello, which is a verb meaning "to be destined to", "to be likely to", "to be about to", "to be alway going to do [without actually doing]", "to delay or put off

γὰρ "For" comes from gar which is the introduction of a clause explaining a reason or explanation: "for", "since," and "as." In an abrupt question it means "why" and "what."

υἱὸς (noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child."

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἔρχεσθαι (verb pres inf mp) "Come" is from erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place.

ἐν "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τῇ δόξῃ (noun sg fem dat) "Glory" is from doxa, which means "expectation" and "opinion." It came to mean "reputuation," especially "good repute", "honor", "glory" and rarely "ill repute." It came to mean "glory" and "magnificence" in external appearance through Christian writing after the Gospels were written.

τοῦ πατρὸς (noun sg masc gen) "The Father" is from pater, which means "father", "grandfather", "author", "parent," and "forefathers."

αὐτοῦ "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

μετὰ "With" is from meta, which means "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to," and "next afterward"

τῶν ἀγγέλων (noun pl masc gen) "Angels" is from aggelos, which means "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use.

αὐτοῦ, "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τότε "Then" is from tote, which means "at that time" and "then."

ἀποδώσει (verb 3rd sg fut ind act) "He shall reward" is from apodidomi which means "to give back", "to restore," and "to deliver." It has the economic sense of "to sell" or "to give something for one's own profit." It begins with apo the preposition of separation and origin, the idea of "from" in English, didômi which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over," and "to describe."

ἑκάστῳ "Every man" is from hekastos, which means "each", "all and each severally," and "each by himself."

κατὰ "According" is from kata, which means "downwards", "down from", "down into", "against", "down toward", "opposite", "separately", "individually", "at a time", "towards", "in accordance with", "concerning", "corresponding with", "during the course of a period," and "severally."

τὴν πρᾶξιν (noun sg fem acc) "Works" is from praxis, which means "doing", "transaction", "business", "action", "recovery of debts," and "practical ability."

αὐτοῦ.” "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

Wordplay: 

The first phase means "is destined to arrive" and "always on the verge of arriving without arriving."  this is a good descripting of prophecy about our expectations of Christ's return. This is both a prophecy and a joke. 

To add to the joke, the word translated as "glory" actually primarily means "expectation" not "glory."

There is also a lot of vagueness here. Is Christ or the Father with the messengers. Is Christ or the Father paying back. Are the messengers being the ones paid back or everyone.