Matthew 5:27 ...You shall not commit adultery:

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Sermon on Mount, Filling up the Law, Adultery

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

You have heard what was proclaimed what was proclaimed, "You may not betray."

KJV : 

Matthew 5:27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:​

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The introductory section is the second iteration of the catchphrase  for this section on "filling up the law." It is  repeated four more times. Such repetition is a form of humor but the phrase also uses an uncommon, exaggerated word, which is another form of humor. The verb translated as "said/told" is uncommon for Jesus to use except in this phrase.  This verb has a more serious meaning, "to proclaim" or "to pronounce," and a lighter meaning "to be mentioned" and "to be pronounced." It is contrasted with the normal word for "tell" or "say" that Jesus uses to describe his viewpoint in the next verse.

The word "adultery" was heard differently in Jesus's time than our own. We know this because Jesus often describes the current generation (or a type of people) as "adulterous.." We assume Jesus wasn't saying that they were cheating on their wives. The broader concept of the time was that "adultery" is anything that is corrupting, as we might say "adulterating." However, the concept is more specific than that. It focuses on activities that violate vows. In , Jesus connects "adultery" and "divorce" to Jeremiah 3:8, but that verse is written in the voice of God "divorcing" Israel for its "adultery. The central vow in human relationships is the marriage vow.  Violating such vows betrays the one to whom the vow is made and corrupts the person breaking it. In Jewish law, unmarried women could not commit adultery. A vow is required. Using this idea, Jesus connects adultery with the destruction of trust, faithlessness, rather than sex. Therefore, the word is also used to refer to idolatry. Idolatry violates a vow to God.

NIV : 

Matthew 5:27 You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.

NLT : 

Matthew 5:27  You have heard the commandment that says, ‘You must not commit adultery.

Wordplay: 

 A play of the two meanings of adultery, sexual cheating and religious cheating. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ἠκούσατε (2nd pl aor ind act) "Ye have heard" is from akouo, which means "hear of", "hear tell of", "what one actually hears", "know by hearsay", "listen to", "give ear to", "hear and understand," and "understand."

ὅτι (conj) "That" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

ἐρρέθη (3rd sg aor ind pass) "It was said" is from ero, which means "to say", "to speak", ""to proclaim", "to announce", "to tell", "to order," "to be pronounced [passive]", "to let suffice [passive]", "to have been given orders", "to be mentioned," and "to be specified, agreed, or promised."

Οὐ (partic) "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

μοιχεύσεις.” (2nd sg aor subj act or 2nd sg fut ind act) "Commit adultery" is moicheuo, which means "commit adultery with a woman, " "to debauch a woman," and generally, "to commit adultery with anyone." It is a metaphor for "worshiping idolatrously."

KJV Analysis: 

Ye -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

have -- (WW) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here. However, this word is in the form indicating that it is likely, so a "should" or "might" should appear here.

heard -- "Heard" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.  It is the most common verb that Christ uses meaning "to hear". It also means "to listen" and "to understand".

that - The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

it -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

was -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "was" in the Greek source. The verb could be the simple past.

said--  (CW) The verb translated as "it was said," means "to pronounce", "to mention", " "to announce", "to proclaim,"   and, in the passive as used here, "to be pronounced", "to be mentioned", "to be specified", "to be agreed," and "to be promised."

by them of old time,  -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "by them of old time, " in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

Thou -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

shalt -- (CW) This helping verb "shalt" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

not The "not" here is the "not" expressing an opinion, not a fact, that usually has the sense of "you don't want," but it is also the negative used in prohibitions. There is an implicit idea of an opinion regarding making a choice. Strangely enough, this is not the negative normally used for prohibitions.

commit adultery:​ -- The  Greek verb translated as "commit adultery" means "to debauch a woman" that is, to degrade a person by having sex outside of marriage. The concept is used more broadly to mean degrading people in general, specifically by encouraging them to break their vows.

KJV Translation Issues: 

5
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "have" means "should."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "was" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "said" is not one of the common Greek words for said, but one that means "announce" or "mention."
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "by them of old time, " existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shalt" does not mean the future tense.

NIV Analysis: 

You -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

have -- (WW) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here. However, this word is in the form indicating that it is likely, so a "should" or "might" should appear here.

heard -- "Heard" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.  It is the most common verb that Christ uses meaning "to hear". It also means "to listen" and "to understand".

that - The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

it -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

was -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "was" in the Greek source. The verb could be the simple past.

said--  (CW) The verb translated as "it was said," means "to pronounce", "to mention", " "to announce", "to proclaim,"   and, in the passive as used here, "to be pronounced", "to be mentioned", "to be specified", "to be agreed," and "to be promised."

You -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shalt" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

not The "not" here is the "not" expressing an opinion, not a fact, that usually has the sense of "you don't want," but it is also the negative used in prohibitions. There is an implicit idea of an opinion regarding making a choice. Strangely enough, this is not the negative normally used for prohibitions.

commit adultery:​ -- The  Greek verb translated as "commit adultery" means "to debauch a woman" that is, to degrade a person by having sex outside of marriage. The concept is used more broadly to mean degrading people in general, specifically by encouraging them to break their vows.

NIV Translation Issues: 

4
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "have" means "should."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "was" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "said" is not one of the common Greek words for said, but one that means "announce" or "mention."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense.

NLT Analysis: 

You -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

have -- (WW) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here. However, this word is in the form indicating that it is likely, so a "should" or "might" should appear here.

heard -- "Heard" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.  It is the most common verb that Christ uses meaning "to hear". It also means "to listen" and "to understand".

the commandment -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "the commandment" in the Greek source.

that - The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

says --  (CW) The verb translated as "says," means "to pronounce", "to mention", " "to announce", "to proclaim,"   and, in the passive as used here, "to be pronounced", "to be mentioned", "to be specified", "to be agreed," and "to be promised."

You -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shalt" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

not The "not" here is the "not" expressing an opinion, not a fact, that usually has the sense of "you don't want," but it is also the negative used in prohibitions. There is an implicit idea of an opinion regarding making a choice. Strangely enough, this is not the negative normally used for prohibitions.

commit adultery:​ -- The  Greek verb translated as "commit adultery" means "to debauch a woman" that is, to degrade a person by having sex outside of marriage. The concept is used more broadly to mean degrading people in general, specifically by encouraging them to break their vows.

NLT Translation Issues: 

5
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "have" means "should."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "for them" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the commandment" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "says" is not one of the common Greek words for said, but one that means "announce" or "mention."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense.

The Spoken Version: 

“My last penny went to wine,” complained a slightly drunken voice, getting a few hoots.
“My last penny went to my wife,” said another, winning an even larger laugh.
“My last penny went to some women who weren’t my wife,” said a third joker suggestively. This won the biggest laugh of all but many groans.
The speaker was smiling, but he was also shaking his head, no.
“You have heard that it has been said—,” he repeated. Then again, switching to his old man’s voice, he pretended to read from a scroll, “‘You don’t want to betray your vows!’”

evidence: 

26.50

Front Page Date: 

May 3 2020