Matthew 5:42 Give to him that asks you,

Spoken to: 

an individual

Context: 

Sermon on Mount, law and fulfillment, visible and hidden, debts and repayment

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

To the one begging from you, give! And whoever will borrow from you, you  shouldn't want to turn yourself away.

KJV : 

Matthew 5:42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This is the third example or maybe the third and fourth examples of the worthless to whom you should not compare yourself. Those begging and borrowing are a different kind of "worth less" but good examples of why "evil" doesn't word as well to describe the groups involved. This verse also focuses more clearly on making sacrifices in order to compare more favorably with others.

The Greek word translated as "turn away" is used by Jesus only three times. The root word "turn" is also very rate, occurring only four times most recently as "turn" in the "turn the other cheek" phrase in Matthew 5:39. The  "from" in the prefix is the same as the "from" preposition in this verse. To have them appear so close together is unlikely to be a coincidence. This "turning away from" has a double meaning of "keeping your eye on"some one as well as "turning you back on".

NIV : 

Matthew 5:42  Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you.

NLT : 

Matthew 5:42 Give to those who ask, and don’t turn away from those who want to borrow.

Wordplay: 

The "turning away from" has a double meaning of "keeping your eye on" as well as "turning you back on".

 The contrasting of "turning the back" here and "turning the cheek" in Matthew 5:39. Different forms of the same Greek word are used. 

My Takeaway: 

Visible sacrifices for others create a higher form of hidden debt that will be repaid.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

τῷ  ( article sg masc dat) "To him that" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which, when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -

αἰτοῦντί (part sg pres act masc dat) "asketh" is from aiteo, which means "to ask for", "to demand", "to beg of", "to postulate or assume [in logic]", "to claim," and "to ask for one's own use." In passive, "to be asked" and "to have a thing begged from one."

σε (pron 2nd sg acc) "You" is from se  the objective form of the second-person, singular pronoun.

δός, (2nd sg aor imperat act) "Give" is from didômi (didomi), which means "to give,""to give freely," "to grant permission," "to grant[of gods]", "to offer [to the gods]", "to hand over", "to deliver up," "to concede [in an argument]" "to give of oneself", "to devote oneself", "to appoint or establish[of a position]," and "to describe or record."

καὶ(conj)"And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τὸν ( article sg masc acc) "Him that" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which, when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- The word translated as "those" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

θέλοντα (part sg pres act masc acc) "would" is from thelo, which as a verb means "to be willing", "to wish", "to ordain", "to decree", "to be resolved to a purpose" and "to desire." As an adjective, it means "wished for" and "desired."

ἀπὸ ​(prep) "Of" is from apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

σοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "Thee" is from sou which means "you" and "your."

δανίσασθαι [3 verses](aor inf mid) "Borrow" is from daneizo, which means "to put out to usury", "to let out", "to borrow," and "to have lent out to one."

μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. With pres. or aor. subj. used in a warning or statement of fear, "take care" It can be the conjunction "lest" or "for fear that."

ἀποστραφῇς. [2 verses](2nd sg aor subj pass ) "From...turn...thou away." is from apostrepho, which means "to turn back", "to guide back", "to turn away", "to dissuade from", "to bring back," and "to recall." In the passive, it means to "be turned back," "turn oneself from", "turn one's face away from", "abandon", and "desert."

KJV Analysis: 

Give -- The Greek word used for "give" here has most of the same meanings as the English word, but it has a few extra shades of meaning that are important here. It encompasses the idea of "giving freely," which means that what is given does not create a debt. It also has the sense of giving of yourself.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object is the most common.

him that -- The word translated as "him that" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.  Its form makes it an indirect object, which is indicated by a "to" in English. 

asketh -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "asketh" means "ask" but has shades of meaning from "demand" to "claim." It means to beg or even to demand something from someone else. It is a participle not an active verb as translated.

thee, -- The word translated as "thee" is the objective form of the second singular person pronoun.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

him that -- The word translated as "him that" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.  Its form makes it an indirect object, which is indicated by a "to" in English. 

would -- (CW, WF) The Greek word translated as "will" is not the same as the helper verb "will" in English, which primarily expresses the future tense. Its primary purpose is to express consent and even a delight in doing something. It means "to consent" and "to be resolved to a purpose". As a participle, it can m"willingly" and "gladly". With an article, as it is here, the sense is "the one wanting."

borrow  -- (WF) The word translated as "borrow" is a little more specific than the English word, referring specifically to the lending and borrowing of money. It is an infinitive so "to borrow."

missing "by/for yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous word is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "by yourself."

of -- The word translated as "of" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

thee -- The word translated as "thee" is the genitive form of the second singular person pronoun.

untranslated "should" (MW) The verb is in the form that indicates something is possible. In requires that a helping verb "might" or "should" to the possibility intended in English.

turn --  (WF) The word translated as "turn away" also has the sense of dissuading or frustrating someone in their desires. The English phrase "turning you back on someone" captures the sense very well. However, the sense of the "turn" is more violent with the sense of "twisting." In the passive, it means to "be turned back," "turn oneself from", "turn one's face away from", "abandon", and "desert." It is not in the form of a command, but a possibility and it is passive.

not -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.  With the verb "to be," the sense is "doesn't seem." When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words.

thou -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

away.  -- This is from the prefix that means "away"of the previous verb that means "from."

KJV Translation Issues: 

7
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "asketh" is not an active verb but a participle, "asking" or "begging."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "would" does not mean the future tense but it is a verb meaning "to want."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "would" is not an active verb but a participle, "wanting."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "borrow" is not an active verb but an infinitive, "to borrow."
  • WV  - Wrong Voice - The verb is in the middle voice requiring the concept of "yourselves" as its object.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "should" needed from the form of the verb is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "turn" is not a command and but a passive in the form of possibility.

NIV Analysis: 

Give -- The Greek word used for "give" here has most of the same meanings as the English word, but it has a few extra shades of meaning that are important here. It encompasses the idea of "giving freely," which means that what is given does not create a debt. It also has the sense of giving of yourself.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object is the most common.

the one -- The word translated as "the one" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.  Its form makes it an indirect object, which is indicated by a "to" in English. 

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source.

asks -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "asks" means "ask" but has shades of meaning from "demand" to "claim." It means to beg or even to demand something from someone else. It is a participle not an active verb as translated.

you, -- The word translated as "you" is the objective form of the second singular person pronoun.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

do -- This helping verb is used to create commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

not -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.  With the verb "to be," the sense is "doesn't seem." When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words.

untranslated "should" (MW) The verb is in the form that indicates something is possible. In requires that a helping verb "might" or "should" to the possibility intended in English.

turn --  (WF) The word translated as "turn away" also has the sense of dissuading or frustrating someone in their desires. The English phrase "turning you back on someone" captures the sense very well. However, the sense of the "turn" is a violent for with the sense of "twisting." In the passive, it means to "be turned back," "turn oneself from", "turn one's face away from", "abandon", and "desert." It is not in the form of a command, but a possibility and it is passive.

away.  -- This is from the prefix that means "away"of the previous verb that means "from."

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

the one -- The word translated as "him that" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.  Its form makes it an indirect object, which is indicated by a "to" in English. 

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source.

wants -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "wants" expresses consent and even a delight in doing something. It means "to consent" and "to be resolved to a purpose". As a participle, it can mean "willingly" and "gladly". With an article, as it is here, the sense is "the one wanting."

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

borrow  -- The word translated as "borrow" is a little more specific than the English word, referring specifically to the lending and borrowing of money. It is an infinitive so "to borrow."

missing "by/for yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous word is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "by yourself."

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

you -- The word translated as "you" is the genitive form of the second singular person pronoun.

NIV Translation Issues: 

7
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "asks" is not an active verb but a participle, "asking" or "begging."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "should" needed from the form of the verb is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "turn" is not a command and but a passive in the form of possibility.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "wants" is not an active verb but a participle, "wanting."
  • WV  - Wrong Voice - The verb is in the middle voice requiring the concept of "yourselves" as its object.

NLT Analysis: 

Give -- The Greek word used for "give" here has most of the same meanings as the English word, but it has a few extra shades of meaning that are important here. It encompasses the idea of "giving freely," which means that what is given does not create a debt. It also has the sense of giving of yourself.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object is the most common.

those -- (WN) The word translated as "the one" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.  Its form makes it an indirect object, which is indicated by a "to" in English. 

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source.

ask -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "asks" means "ask" but has shades of meaning from "demand" to "claim." It means to beg or even to demand something from someone else. It is a participle not an active verb as translated.

untranslated "you"-- (MW) The untranslated word "you" is the objective form of the second singular person pronoun.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

do -- (WW) This helping verb is used to create commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English, but the Greek verb is in the form that indicates something is possible. In requires that a helping verb "might" or "should" to the possibility intended in English.

n't -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.  With the verb "to be," the sense is "doesn't seem." When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words.

turn --  (WF) The word translated as "turn away" also has the sense of dissuading or frustrating someone in their desires. The English phrase "turning you back on someone" captures the sense very well. However, the sense of the "turn" is a violent for with the sense of "twisting." In the passive, it means to "be turned back," "turn oneself from", "turn one's face away from", "abandon", and "desert." It is not in the form of a command, but a possibility and it is passive.

away.  -- This is from the prefix that means "away"of the previous verb that means "from."

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

those -- (WN) The word translated as "the one" is the Greek definite article, which when not preceding a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.  Its form makes it an indirect object, which is indicated by a "to" in English. 

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source.

want -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "wants" expresses consent and even a delight in doing something. It means "to consent" and "to be resolved to a purpose". As a participle, it can mean "willingly" and "gladly". With an article, as it is here, the sense is "the one wanting."

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

borrow  -- The word translated as "borrow" is a little more specific than the English word, referring specifically to the lending and borrowing of money. It is an infinitive so "to borrow."

missing "by/for yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous word is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "by yourself."

untranslated "from"-- (MW) The untranslated word "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

untranslated "you"-- (MW) The untranslated word "you" is the genitive form of the second singular person pronoun.

NLT Translation Issues: 

14
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "those" is translated as plural but the word is singular.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "ask" is not an active verb but a participle, "asking" or "begging."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "asks" is not an active verb but a participle, "asking" or "begging."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "you" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "do" should be "should."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "turn" is not a command and but a passive in the form of possibility.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "those" is translated as plural but the word is singular.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "want" is not an active verb but a participle, "wanting."
  • WV  - Wrong Voice - The verb is in the middle voice requiring the concept of "yourselves" as its object.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "from" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "you" is not shown in the English translation.

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

In a sense here, this verse is the opposite of the previous one, Matthew 5:41, where we are forced into doing something. Here, we are being asked.

The Spoken Version: 

“Then someday,” Stepheos continued, “perhaps I will be a rich man who people ask for work instead of just a beggar!”
As the boy said this, he put on a pitiful face and stretched out a hand as if begging.
We laughed. He was clearly practiced at begging.
The Master laughed as well but he also surprised us. He held up some copper coins for us to see and dropped them into the boy’s outstretched hand.
“To the one asking from you,” the Teacher added, “give!”
“Fortunate, this beggar!” commented the urchin. Stepheos held up the coppers for us to see.
We all applauded the boy’s quickness in recalling the Master’s opening line.
“Thank you, Master,” the boy said gratefully, but then he complained. “But my friend there saw me get this! Now he wants to borrow from me!”
The Master laughed.
“Also, for the one wanting to borrow from you,” the Teacher said as he dropped a few more pennies into the urchin’s hands..
“Give this to him?” the boy asked.
“You might not want to turn away,” suggested the Nazarene.
“If you mean I should keep my eyes on him, you’re right, especially if he owes me money!” Stepheos agreed.
We laughed again at his street wisdom.

evidence: 

41.00

Front Page Date: 

May 18 2020