Mark 4:11...Unto you it is given to know the mystery

KJV Verse: 

Mark 4:11 Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all [these] things are done in parables:

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

To you, the secret of the realm of the Divine has been given. To those ones, however, the ones outside, in comparisons this all happens.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

There is no verb "to know" in the Greek. It says simply that they are given the mysteries, which means something very different. The only place in the Gospel that he uses this particular word is in this parable. It appears in all three Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 13:11,  and Luke 8:10). Historically, the Greek word for mystery is attached to hidden religious rites and the implements of those rites. This fits somewhat with notes in the previous verse Mark 4:9 He that hath ears to hear,... .referring to codes. This verse is different from other versions because it uses the use of the term for "outside."

KJV Analysis: 

Unto This comes from the dative form of the following word. The form of this word requires that addition of a preposition in English to capture its meaning, a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, and an "in" for area of affect. Jesus could have meant "to," or "for" with this verb.

you The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc. 

it is given The verb translated as "it is given" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give." The form is the past perfect, passive so "has been given" is more correct.

to know This verb does not appear in the Greek.

the mystery "The mystery" is from mustêrion (musterion), which means "mystery", "secret doctrine", "secret rite", "mystical implements", "talisman", "magical item," and "secrets revealed by God." It is preceded by an article, "the."

of the kingdom The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "realm" seems more appropriate. This is especially true because the "reign" of a king means the execution of his will. The "of" comes from its genitive form. The "the" comes from the article preceding it.

of God: The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Christ often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods. The "of" comes from its genitive form.

but The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

unto This comes from the dative form of the following word. The form of this word requires that addition of a preposition in English to capture its meaning, a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, and an "in" for area of affect.

them The word translated as "them" is the Greek article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

that The word translated as "that" is an adjective that highlights its noun as in a specific place from a word that means "there."  It comes before the "unto them" and the "but," starting the sentence

are There is no "are" here. Nor do the forms of the words involved suggest this verb.

without,The word translated as "out" means "out of a place" and "outside." Here, it is preceded by an article so the sense is "the ones outside."

all The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way", "on every side," and "altogether." The form could be either the subject or object of the sentence.

[these] things The word translated as "these things" is the Greek article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. The form is plural neutral so "things." The form could be either the subject or object of the sentence.

are doneThis is NOT the word usually translated as "do" or "done" in the NT. The word translated as "are done" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Christ, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state. It also means "to happen." Its meanings makes the "all these tjhings" the subject of the sentence, not the object.

in The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

parables: "Parable" is Greek for "analogy", "comparison," and "illustration." It doesn't mean simply "educational story" as it has come to mean in English. The fact that Christ speaks in analogies and illustrations is critical in understanding His words.

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ὑμῖν (pron 2nd pl dat) "Unti you" is humin the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -

τὸ μυστήριον [uncommon] ( noun sg neut acc ) "The mystery" is from mustêrion (musterion), which means "mystery", "secret doctrine", "secret rite", "mystical implements", "talisman", "magical item," and "secrets revealed by God."

δέδοται ( verb 3rd sg perf ind mp ) "Is given" is from didômi (didomi), which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over," and "to describe." It is the word usually translated as "give" in the Gospels.

τῆς βασιλείας  (noun sg fem gen) "The kingdom" is basileia, which means "kingdom", "dominion", "hereditary monarchy", "kingly office," (passive) "being ruled by a king," and "reign." --

τοῦ θεοῦ: (noun sg masc gen) "God" is theos, which means "God," the Deity." --

ἐκείνοις ( adj pl masc dat ) "Unto them" is ekeinos (kakeinos), which means "the person there", "that person", "that thing", "in that case", "in that way", "at that place," and "in that manner." --

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is