Luke 21:25 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And there shall be omens in sun and moon, and stars; upon the planet, a holding together of ethnic groups in an impasse of an echo of a sea and of swells  (imbecile).

KJV : 

Luke 21:25 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring;

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse is full of words that Jesus only uses here. Most are translated in the KJV and most other Bibles in ways that are pretty distant from their common and obvious meaning. There is also a play on words at the end in the punch line position.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). This word is repeated in this verse four times.

The verb "there shall be" here is the future form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.  When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like in the plural, "there shall be." 

Sign" is Greek word that means a "mark", "sign," or "proof." The word in Greek is used specifically to means a sign from the gods and it that sense, it means "omen", "portent," and "constellations."

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

The translation shows an article "the" before "sun", "moon", and "stars". But there are not articles in the Greek because they are unique items and do not need them in Greek, where the article identifies a specific instance, is more like "this".

"Sun" is from the noun that means the "sun", "life", "day", "sunshine", and so on.

"Moon" is from the noun that means "moon", "full moon", "month," and is the name of the goddess of the moon.

"Stars" is  our first unique work. Another word for "stars" is used elsewhere in the Gospels such as Mark 13:25. This is the word means "the stars" and in the sense of the entire field of stars in the sky as opposed to the plural of the word for single stars. It is the word from which we get astronomy in English.

The word translated as "unto" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

The word translated as "upon" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

The Greek article "the" appears before "earth" because the same word is used for "ground" and "di

The word translated as "earth" means "ground" and "dirt". Translated as "earth", it refers to the physical planet, not society, which Christ describes as the world. See this article for more on these words.

"Distress" is another unique word, but it means "holding together", "maintenance", "self maintenance", "contraction", "conflict" in battle, "continuity", "meeting place", and it is a metaphor for "distress" and "affliction".  Though the noun is only uses here, the verb form is used by Jesus to mean "hold together" elsewhere in Gospels.

The word translated as "of nations,"  is the same word translated as "gentiles",  Its primary meaning is "a group of people living together," a nation, a tribe, or a cast of people. Later it came to mean "barbarous nations" similar to our idea of ethnic people. It is in the same form as the "them" above, so "to them" or "for them."

The word translated as "with" primarily means "in" but it also means "within", "with," or "among."

"Perplexity" is another unique word that means literally,  "impasse", of places "difficulty of passing", of things "difficulty", "straits", "impossibility", of persons "difficulty of dealing with or getting at", "being at a loss", "embarrassment", "perplexity", "distress", "discomfort" in illness, "lack" of a person or thing, "question for discussion", "difficulty", and "puzzle".  The literal meaning of the word is "no passing".

The word translated as "roaring" appears here in the Greek. It modifies "impasse" not the sea or "waves". It is not a verb. It is the noun that means "echo".

Again, there is no "the" here. 

The "sea" is from the Greek word for "sea" and "sea water." Water is Christ's symbol for the temporary, physical reality.

"Waves" is another unique word for Jesus and one that creates a play on words. It can be  The meaning of the word that means "tossing motion" of earthquakes or "rolling swell" of the sea, and metaphorically, "distemper", "restlessness", and "perplexity". However, a different word spelled the same way means  "silly" and "imbecile".

Wordplay: 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

ἔσονται ( verb 3rd pl fut ind mid ) "There shall be" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen",  and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

σημεῖα (noun pl neut nom) "Sign" is from semeion, which means "mark (by which things are known)," , "a proof" (in reasoning), "sign (of the future)", "sign from the gods", "signal (to do things)," and "standard (flag).

ἐν (prep) "In" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

ἡλίῳ (noun sg masc dat) "Sun" is from helios, which means the "sun", "life", "day", "sunshine", "the sun's heat", "brightness," and the sun-god.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

σελήνῃ [uncommon](noun sg fem dat) "Moon" is from σελήνη selene, which means "moon", "full moon", "month," and is the name of the goddess of the moon.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἄστροις, [unique]( noun pl neut dat ) "Stars" is astron, which means "the stars", and, metaphorically, something "brilliant", "admirable".

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

ἐπὶ (prep) "Against" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against."

τῆς γῆς ( noun sg fem gen ) "The earth" is ge, which means "the element of earth", "land (country)", "arable land", "the ground," and "the world" as the opposite of the sky. Like our English word "earth," it means both dirt and the planet.

συνοχὴ [unique]( noun sg fem nom ) "Distress" is synochē, which means "holding together", "maintenance", "self maintenance", "contraction", "conflict" in battle, "continuity", "meeting place", and it is a metaphor for "distress" and "affliction".

ἐθνῶν ( noun pl neut gen ) "Nations" is ethnos, which means "a number of people living together", "company", "body of men," "tribe", "a people", "nation," and (later) "foreign, barbarous nations."

ἐν (prep) "With" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

ἀπορίᾳ [unique](noun sg fem dat) "Perplexity" is aporia, which means literally,  "impasse", of places "difficulty of passing", of things "difficulty", "straits", "impossibility", of persons "difficulty of dealing with or getting at", "being at a loss", "embarrassment", "perplexity", "distress", "discomfort" in illness, "lack" of a person or thing, "question for discussion", "difficulty", and "puzzle".

ἠχοῦς   [unique]( noun sg fem gen) "Roaring" is echeo, which means "echo" and, generally, " ringing sound"

"θαλάσσης ( noun sg fem gen ) "Sea" is from thalassa (thalassa), which means also means "sea", "channel", "well of saltwater," or "sea water."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

σάλου, [unique}( noun sg masc gen ) "Waves" is salos, which means "tossing motion" of earthquakes, "rolling swell" of the sea, and metaphorically, "distemper", "restlessness", and "perplexity". It is also salos, (adj sg masc gen) which means "silly" and "imbecile".

Front Page Date: 

Jan 13 2019